Paige was a Detroit, United States-based automobile company, selling luxury cars between 1908 and 1927.
Paige first began producing automobiles in 1908. The company's first car was a two-seat model powered by a 2.2-liter three-cylinder, two-stroke engine. This model continued until 1910, when a four-stroke, four-cylinder engine design took over. In 1911, the company's namesake was shortened to Paige. A six-cylinder model was added to the range in 1914. Four-cylinder models were dropped in 1916, leaving a choice of 3.7- or 4.9-liter sixes. Another name change occurred in 1919, when models fitted with a Duesenberg engine were known as Paige-Linwood, and models fitted with a Continental engine were listed as Paige-Larchmont. A straight-eight engine was added to the sixes in 1927.
The most notable Paige produced was the 1922-1926 Daytona, a 3-seat sports roadster with a 6-cylinder engine. The vehicle was a traditional coupe, with the novel third seat extending from the side of the car over the near side running board. Paige advertised the Daytona as being "The most beautiful car in America."
Paige also produced less-expensive range of cars between 1923-1926. These were sold as Jewetts and were named for the Paige company president H. M. Jewett. For 1927, the Jewett name changed to Junior Paige.
"Among the unsung cars of the Twenties," writes Tim Howley, "is the Paige, whose advertising claimed immodestly, though with some justification, that here was The Most Beautiful Car in America."
The Paige, he continues,
is one of many a fine but forgotten car that rolled down the narrow, two lane highways of the Twenties to an undeserved end. The motor cemeteries of the decade are covered with such time tarnished epitaphs as Apperson, Lexington, Daniels, Elcar, Gardner, Moon, Haynes, H.C.S., Kenworthy, Rickenbacker, Roamer, Stearns, Velie, and maybe a dozen more that deserved to survive. . . A Paige is a rare sight today. Paige built many cars, and had a strong dealer organization in many parts of the country. Despite this, very few examples of the car have survived. Nobody ever thought of saving them.
The Paige-Detroit Motor Car Company built the Paige between 1909 and 1927 to the highest standards of production engineering for its day. Paige-Detroit also manufactured Paige trucks, 1918-1923, and the Jewett light six, 1922-1926. Sales topped 30,000 for most years. Peak production of 43,500 vehicles occurred in 1923. Cumulative 1910-1927 production was perhaps 400,000.
The Paige story begins with two men, Fred Paige and Harry Jewett.
Frederick Osgood Paige, 1863-1935, grew up in Detroit where his family settled when he was a child. He began work at age sixteen and helped establish a successful paper business in his twenties. In 1892 he joined his father-in-law in the insurance business. In 1904 he helped organize the Reliance Motor Car Company. At first Reliance made pleasure cars, but it soon switched exclusively to trucks. General Motors got into the truck business when it bought Reliance. In writing later of this period Paige declared: "I was then out of active business but I busied myself by designing and building a small passenger car, which attracted considerable attention."
Harry Mulford Jewett, 1870-1933, was a native of Elmira, New York, who went to the University of Notre Dame to study engineering. While an undergraduate in 1888 he made the first touchdown in a Notre Dame intercollegiate football game. He was a champion athlete both in college and later as a Detroit Athletic Club member. After he earned a civil engineering degree from Notre Dame in 1890, he began his career working on projects in Chicago and in Detroit. He was a member of the Michigan Naval Reserve and in the war with Spain served on the USS Yosemite. Later he went into the coal industry with a Chicago company, and in 1903 he started his own coal business in Detroit.
About 1909 Jewett decided to get into automobiles. Why? There are possible two reasons. First, fellow coal dealer Alexander Malcolmson had bankrolled Henry Ford in 1902 (though he sold his shares in 1906 and eventually returned to the coal business). Second, in October, 1908, Ford introduced a two-passenger runabout, the Model T, for $825 and assembled nearly 12,000 in 1909. Thus, Harry Jewett saw an opportunity in building autos.
That summer he found Fred Paige and his car, a roadster with a unique two-stroke, three-cylinder 25 HP engine. Between the two of them they gathered a small group of Detroit businessmen, who agreed to pool their combined talent and resources to produce the car.
1910 First "Paige-Detroit"
The first Paige-Detroit, $800 FOB Detroit, was a light, open two-seater roadster named Challenger. A picture of this first car appeared in the December 29, 1909, issue of The Horseless Age as part of an extensive photo listing of cars to be shown at the 1910 national shows that opened on New Year's Day. The following week The Horseless Age carried a descriptive article, and an ad for this new model appeared in the January 8, 1910, issue of The Saturday Evening Post.
The unique feature of this initial offering was its three-cylinder, two-cycle engine. The automobile world was quite familiar then with single cylinder motors, as well as two-, four-, and six-cylinder versions, but a three-cylinder engine was quite rare, and a three-cylinder, two-cycle engine was even rarer. Such motors were in widespread use for marine purposes, but one in an automobile was a novelty. The company felt that this type of motor was superior in a number of ways to the more common four-cycle motors "in smoothness of operation and flexibility, and that it is much more desirable, since it has no small parts to get out of adjustment." This motor, with the cylinders cast separately, produced 25 HP, and it was claimed to provide the same power as any of the high grade six-cylinder automobiles then available and to provide it with fewer parts.
The car had a 90 inch wheelbase, 56 inch tread, 32 inch wheels fitted with 3 inch tires, semi-elliptic springs at the front, a full elliptic spring mounted crosswise at the rear, and a cylindrical gas tank at the rear. Each car came equipped with oil lamps on either side, one on the rear, a bulb horn, and a tool kit. All bodies were "ironed for tops", but the top itself was extra. Standard enamel colors were a dark blue body and cream yellow running gear, all tastefully striped, according to The Horseless Age.
The little roadster was an instant success. As 1910 wore on, a compact two-passenger coupe body was developed for the same chassis. A buyer could order both roadster and coupe bodies and switch between them for year-round motoring.
With production underway Harry Jewett began to learn more about cars. In the spring of 1910 his assessment of his Paige-Detroit auto was not good. Fred Paige left the company, and Jewett installed himself as the president. He hired a new general manager, shut down the assembly line, and commenced to reorganize the engineering department. The Company had sold 800 autos in its first year.
In writing many years later about this experience Fred Paige stated simply "I acted as President and General Manager for a time and then moved to New York and retired from business." He eventually established the Paige & Jones Chemical Company, specializing in water softening treatment. Paige sold his interest in this company in 1930 and retired to Los Angeles, where in died in 1935 at age 71 after a short illness.
The formula to calculate horsepower was to multiply the square of the cylinder diameter in inches by the number of cylinders and to divide the product by the constant 2.5. This formula was based on a piston speed of 1,000 feet per minute, average pressure of 90 pounds per square inch and a mechanical efficiency of 75%.
It was considered to result in a fair, conservative rating that would be useful in comparing one car with another. The calculation was adopted by the Society of Automobile Engineers (Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE, after 1916), by the the Association of Licensed Automotive Manufacturers (ALAM) and by the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce (NACC).
Other methods for calculating horsepower included indicated horsepower (IHP) and brake horsepower (BHP). IHP measured the power applied to the piston of the engine by the explosion and expansion of the gases. BHP was the power delivered by the engine to the machinery it was driving. The ratio of BHP to IHP was a measure of efficiency. With the evolution of automobile engines BHP became a more meaningful measure of power than the original SAE formula.
1911 Last "Paige-Detroit"
For the 1911 model year Paige-Detroit introduced a conventional four-stroke 25 HP four-cylinder motor. The two-cycle 25 HP three-cylinder engine remained available, and a buyer could choose either. Ads described the Paige-Detroit as a snappy "big little" car that was easy to crank and that required no chauffeur. The company claimed its spring suspension permitted passengers to ride easily over rutted roads, unlike other cars that were inclined to rock and tip, "much to the discomfort of the occupants". Despite the company's belief in the efficiency and future of the two-cycle engine, the emphasis was clearly on the four-cycle version. At some point during the 1911 model run the two-cycle motor was phased out.
The basic Challenger roadster remained $800 with either motor. Top and windshield were $75 extra. The 90-inch chassis retained the sliding gear transmission with two forward speeds and reverse. A new coupe was available for $1250.
Paige-Detroit developed a longer 104-inch wheelbase chassis for a new $900 open-sided touring car, which came with detachable rear seats so that it could "be used for depot or marketing". A buyer could select a torpedo-type touring car (with side doors) for $975. The longer chassis had a transmission with three forward speeds and reverse.
All cars were fully guaranteed for one year from the date of purchase. Tires and any accessories, however, were covered by guarantees issued by their makers. If a buyer experienced any trouble with any part of the car, it had to be returned to the factory for inspection, freight prepaid, to secure a replacement free from charge. This, no doubt, was a time-consuming process, but perhaps in those days it was just the acceptable way.
The company adopted a policy, unique among manufacturers, of supplying any repair part at cost. Paige-Detroit claimed it did not seek to make a profit on parts sold to repair its cars. "We are satisfied with one profit and don't want two. We do want satisfied owners." Sales jumped to nearly 3,000 cars.
1912 First "Paige"
Late in 1911 Harry Jewett decided to change the name of the car. Towards the end of 1911 the company advertised its 1912 line of Paige-Detroit autos as usual, but an ad in the January 4, 1912 of The Automobile identified the car simply as a Paige and no longer as a Paige-Detroit.
Models were given stylish names, a policy that the company would continue for another ten years. The two 1911 touring car models, for example, evolved in 1912 into the Pinehurst and the Beverley. Windshields and tops were included as standard equipment on all open models. For $25 a prospective owner could get a Prest-O-Lite tank installed. The new 1912 models had unusually attractive styling. The La Marquise four-passenger coupe was certainly a unique combination of carriage styling with an automobile chassis. These achievements helped account for three first prizes in auto shows.
Almost immediately the lineup was revised. By January of 1912 all 90-inch wheelbase models were dropped, including the original Challenger roadster, and two proposed models that never saw production, the Princess coupe and the Newport fore-door roadster.
At this point, then, the 1912 lineup consisted of six models with prices ranging from $900 to $1,600, including several open sporting cars, which all had the same 104-inch wheelbase and 25 horsepower motor.
- Coupé, four-passenger, La Marquise, $1,600
- Raceabout, two-passenger, Brooklands, $975
- Roadster, Kenilworth, $975
- Runabout, two-passenger, Rockland, $925
- Touring car, fore-door torpedo-type, Beverley, $975
- Touring car with detachable rear seats, Pinehurst, $900
Later in the year these models were joined by a seventh:
- Touring car, five-passenger, Brunswick $1,000
During the course of 1912 Paige broke from the pack of ordinary transportation when it became the first popular priced car to adopt the self-starter. That same year Paige also became the first in its field to use a cork-insert, multiple-disc clutch enclosed in the flywheel and running in oil.
Paige made dramatic changes when it announced its 1913 models. A new and larger series was added that featured "left-side" drive, electric starting, electric lighting and "center control", all new for 1913.
The new line was designated as the Model 36. It rode on a 116 inch wheelbase and had a large, long stroke four-cylinder motor that produced 36 HP at 2200 RPM. Paige equipped the Model 36 with the "famous" Gray & Davis starting and electric lighting system that it claimed was found on cars costing far more. The starter control was on the steering post, and ads proclaimed that "A woman can operate it with ease and assurance." With the new center control, consisting of a gear-shifting, ball-pivoted rod, the Company claimed to be in step with the best of the high-priced cars. Other Model 36 equipment included a Stewart revolving dial speedometer, twelve-inch electric headlights, electric side and tail lights, nickel trim, and such features as license brackets, adjustable foot rest and nickel robe rail.
- Model 36
- Coupé, four-passenger, Montrose, $1,850
- Raceabout, Brighton, $1,275
- Roadster, three-passenger, Westbrook, $1,275
- Sedan, five-passenger, Maplehurst, $1,950
- Touring car, five-passenger, Glenwood, $1,275
Dark blue bodies with black running gear were standard, and, depending on the road conditions in the buyer's area, he could order any car with either the standard 56 inch tread or gauge or the wider 60 inch tread. Print ads for the Model 36 Glenwood five-passenger touring car showed a gas tank filler cap in the cowl, as well as the parking lights mounted flush in the cowl front.
|"Motor Age" Magazine, December 12, 1912|
The smaller line was actually made up of two carryover models from the 1912 lineup:
- Model 25
- Roadster, three-passenger, Kenilworth, $950
- Touring car, five-passenger, Brunswick, $950
The price for either, F.O.B. Detroit, was $25 less than the previous year. The Prest-O-Lite tank was included as standard equipment in 1913, instead of being a $25 extra, as in 1912. In common with the Model 36 cars, the Brunswick and the "snappy, graceful" Kenilworth featured a silk mohair top, top boot, curtains, five demountable rims, extra tire irons, horn, pump, jack and tools.
|1913 Paige "25" Brunswick Touring Car||1913 Paige "36" Glenwood Touring Car||1913 Paige "25" Kenilworth Roadster|
|1913 Paige "36" Maplehurst Sedan||1913 Paige "36" Montrose Coupe||1913 Paige "36" Westbrook Roadster|
Some Features of the Paige-Detroit Thirty-six
The Horseless Age Magazine
October 1, 1913, p. 541; Corrections October 22, 1913, p. 697
The car built by the Paige-Detroit Motor Car Co. of Detroit embodies a four-cylinder unit power plant, with three point support. The motor of this car is of the en bloc type, the bore being 4 inches and the stroke 5 [originally 4-1/4]. All the valves are located on the left-hand side of the cylinders, but the exhaust pipe is so designed that left-hand drive may be readily applied, despite the location of the valves. It is equally easy to apply right-hand drive for foreign trade on this car.
The method of supporting the power plant is shown in one of the sketches. Two studs project downward from box-section crank-case arms, and pass through two holes B in the frame cross member R. At the front of the motor a trunnion is fitted, which rests in the trunnion block T, the latter being fastened to the cross member of the frame F by means of a couple of bolts. Both frame cross members are deeply dropped in order to permit the oil pan to be readily removed from the crank case.
The valves are made in two pieces, the heads being cast [originally case] iron and the stems steel. They provide a clear opening of 1-13/16 inches, and have an outside diameter of 2 inches. The valve stems measure 3/8-inch in diameter and have 4-1/2-inch bearing in the guides.
The camshaft, the magneto and water pump and electric generator are driven by silent chains mounted on flanged wheels, the centre of which are non-adjustable. The crankshaft is a heavily webbed drop forging, and is mounted upon three main bearings. all of which are 1-3/4 [originally 1-3/8] inches in diameter.
Some interesting examples of pressed steel work are found on this motor. The big cover plate for the tops of the cylinder water jacket is made of pressed steel instead of a casting. The oil pan and reservoir are also made of pressed steel [and welded into one solid piece]. The cover plate is formed from a single piece of sixteen gauge steel, drawn into shape and held in place by four studs which screw into the tops of each cylinder, with acorn type nuts. The steel header is flanged at the bottom and a gasket is used to pack it. At the forward end a tube is welded into a lip extruded at the forward end.
The lower half of the crank case is pressed from No. 16 U.S. gauge sheet steel. It is made in two pieces, one serving as an oil container and the other as a splash basin. The flanges on the two pieces are placed one immediately above the other, so that the act of clamping the lower one onto the crank case serves to hold the upper one in place. The sump has a capacity of about four quarts of oil. The oil from the supply basins returns to the sump through three holes, the rearmost one of which is located between the third and fourth cylinders. Immediately beneath this hole is a baffle plate which extends well up under the second cylinder. The use of this baffleplate is claimed to eliminate smoking when climbing a steep hill, because it prevents the oil in the sump, should that be full, from rising in the rear splash basins. The oil pump is of the plunger type, and is operated by an eccentric located on the cam-shaft. This pump is 5/8-inch in diameter and has a 1/4-inch stroke. Two 7/16 [originally 3/8]-inch ball check valves are used. The pump is carried entirely in the upper portion of the crank case and is held in place by two bolts. Undoing two compression couplings and these two bolts permits the entire pump with the check valves to be removed from the motor. The oil strainer in the bottom of the sump is also readily removable, although it drains the oil reservoir when it is removed. The pump lifts oil from the sump and delivers it under pressure to a tube cast in the crank case. From this tube the oil is sprayed through a number of nozzles into the pockets provided above the main bearings and into the splash basins of the motors.
Bosch single [originally Splitdorf dual] ignition is standard equipment on these models. Battery ignition is provided to facilitate starting in cold weather.
The cooling system comprises a pump and cellular [originally vertical tube] type of radiator. The pump shaft is extended in either direction, and carries a pulley at one end which drives the six-blade, 16-inch pressed steel fan, and the magneto at the other. This ball bearing fan is driven at 1-83 times engine speed. The pump is said to float, inasmuch as it is not securely fastened but takes its bearing upon the shaft. A leather coupling is provided between the magneto and the pump in order to provide for any slight disalignment. The radiator is supported upon a pair of malleable cast iron brackets, which are inserted in the side rails of the frame. Two studs passing through the holes R serve to hold the radiator in place. The casting is riveted in place, one of the rivets being shown at E, where it is fastened onto the front cross member of the frame. A hard rubber bushing B is inserted as shown, to insulate and prevent the head lamp wire from chafing on the metal.
The selective transmission, which gives three forward speeds and reverse, is carried by means of a couple of arms of box section which surround the 16-inch flywheel. The multiple disc clutch is made up of fourteen saw steel plates, seven of which are three-sixteenths inch thick, the others one-sixteenth inch. Each of the former carries thirty-two seven-sixteenths inch cork inserts. The inside and outside diameters of this clutch are 7 and 9-1/2 inches, respectively.Five electric lamps are part of the equipment. The head lamp bracket is bolted onto the front fender irons F by a couple of three-eighths inch bolts B. The lamp iron is made up of a number of drop forgings. The right hand prong L and plate for the bolts, and a portion of the cross piece C, are forged in one piece. The left hand prong L is forged in the form of a T. When the two pieces are welded together on the horizontal piece C they assume the form shown in the sketch.
The arms which support the transmission also serve to carry the pedals. They have been designed in such a manner that right or left hand drive may be applied to the car by the change of one pedal only. This also applies to the steering gear and self starter mechanism, all frames being machined so as to carry either right or left band drive. The transmission has 6-8 stub tooth gears with seven-eighths inch face. The shifter forks and selectors are mounted in the top of the transmission case. The gear shift lever H is mounted in a ball and socket joint S, which is formed in the cover plate T of the transmission. The lever is inclined to the rear, so that it comes up to the driver's hand very conveniently. A pin is attached to the transmission cover plate T, upon which the emergency brake lever L is pivoted. The emergency brake pull rod is indicated at B. A pawl P locks the brake after it has been applied. The ratchet R in which this pawl engages is placed below instead of above the pivot of the emergency brake lever.
Full elliptic springs are used at the rear and semi-elliptic in front. These in the rear are pivoted in a bracket attached to the frame, and pass under the axle, to which they are clipped, as shown in the sketch. The U-clips, as shown at C, are employed. The spring seat is split, and held together by a pair of cap screws H. It is rotatably mounted onto the axle tube A. The spring S is clamped between a plate P and the spring seat. Some cotton fabric B is placed between the spring seat and the spring.
For the 1914 season Paige continued both the Model 25, introduced in 1912, and the Model 36 line of 1913. As of late 1913 it forecast building 4,000 of the Model 25 and 9,500 of the Model 36.
- Model 25
- Roadster, three-passenger, Kenilworth, $900
- Touring car, five-passenger, Brunswick, $900
- Model 36
- Coupé, four-passenger, Montrose, $1,850
- Limousine, Newport, $2,250
- Raceabout, two-passenger, Speedway (formerly Brighton), $1,275
- Roadster, three-passenger, Westbrook, $1,275
- Sedan, five-passenger, Maplehurst, $1,950
- Touring car, five-passenger, Glenwood, $1,275
Model 36 prices were unchanged from the previous model year, while Model 25 prices were reduced from $950 to $900. Electric starting and lighting were a $75 option for the Model 25, which made the two models unique for cars under $1000.
Under the hood the Paige 36 remained essentially the same. By the time Paige-Detroit shipped its Model 36 autos, they had a new, smoother body with fewer breaks and angles. The prospective Paige 36 customer was warned that he would quickly sense "the beauty that radiates from its new, pure stream-line body design." Advertising copywriters claimed such a design was the vogue in Europe. Among the other design changes were crowned fenders, invisible door hinges and hood latches. An electric horn was added. With the replacement of the "straight dash" by the streamlined cowl and the addition of dimmers to the Gray & Davis headlights, the sidelights were dropped. The gas tank filler cap was no longer in front of the windshield; instead it protruded from the dashboard next to the driver. A limousine joined the Model 36 line in early 1914.
Paige cars were gaining popularity and well over 17,000 had been sold altogether by the end of the 1914 model year. The Company's plant was quite large and considered one of Detroit's premier automobile manufacturing operations at the time. The industry was moving to six cylinder cars, and Paige had the facilities and expertise to offer. As it looked into the future, it could not help but notice the trend towards larger engines.
When Paige-Detroit first announced its 1915 models the Model 36 and the Model 25 were carried forward unchanged. Within a few months prices were lowered on cars in both lines. The decreases presumably came from improved efficiencies in the more modern plant and from economies in purchasing larger quantities of materials. Only two Model 36 autos, the Glenwood touring car and a now nameless roadster, were advertised, compared to the six models offered in 1914.
- Model 25
- Roadster, $925
- Touring car, $925
- Model 36, later "Four-36"
- Roadster, $1,195
- Touring car, five-passenger, Glenwood, $1,195
A perceptive observer might have deduced from these price reductions and model changes that the company was in a period of transition. In January of 1915 this became clear when Paige dropped the Model 25 line. The Model 36 touring car and roadster continued as "Four-36" models. Paige claimed the Glenwood touring car and its companion roadster had given given universal satisfaction, required no changes in design or high experimental and engineering costs, and offered either for the new, lower price of $1,075.
The big news was a new six-cylinder line, consisting initially of the Fairfield touring car and later the Meadowbrook roadster. The Company modestly described the new line as the "Ultimate Six" and the standard by which all other "Sixes" were to be judged.
- Roadster, three-passenger, Meadowbrook, $1,395
- Touring car, seven-passenger, Fairfield, $1,395
Paige Company Enters the Field of Sixes
One more of the prominent manufacturers of moderate priced four cylinder cars has recently added a six to its line for the 1915 season, the Paige-Detroit Motor Car Co., of Detroit, Mich., having just announced such a model, known as the Six-46. It is a seven passenger car, two extra folding seats being provided in the tonneau, which disappear in the back of the front seat when not in use. The car has a wheel base of 124 inches, and among its most characteristic features is rear suspension on floating cantilever springs. It is stated that since the motor space is comparatively short and the body extends well back of the rear axle, ample seating room is provided for the accommodation of seven passengers. The seats are deep, with high backs and sides, and the leather covered upholstering is over-stuffed.
The motor is of the en bloc type, and the upper half of the crank case is cast integral with the cylinders, a practice that has been gaining in popularity for some time. The bore is 3-1/2 inches and the stroke 5-1/4 inches. As is customary where the cylinders and the upper half of the crank case are cast integral, the cylinder head is made separate. By removing the head one gains access to all valves, to the pistons and to the water jackets. It facilitates decarbonizing and regrinding of the valves; and, most important of all, it insures accurate setting of cores. All valves are on the right-hand side and the intake manifold fold is cast integral with the cylinders, being located directly under the exhaust outlets. This insures preheating of the charge while passing through the inlet manifold by the exhaust gases. The valve mechanism is of the rocker arm type, and a hardened steel roller is used as a cam follower. Aluminum plates fastened over the valve chambers permit of running the valves in a bath of oil.
The camshaft is driven through helical gears on a cross shaft at the front of the motor. This cross shaft is driven by a large diameter bronze helical gear on the front end of the crankshaft. Through helical gears at both ends of the cross shaft are driven the Bosch magneto, which is located at the right, and the centrifugal water pump and Gray & Davis lighting generator, which are located Oil the left. The left end gear also drives the fan belt pulley. The Gray & Davis starting motor is mounted at the rear on the right hand side near the flywheel.
The lower half of the crank case Is in the form of a pressed steel pan, which acts as an oil reservoir. From this reservoir oil is drawn by means of a plunger pump actuated from the camshaft, and is circulated to all main hearings. Cooling water is circulated by means of the centrifugal pump already referred to. Great care has been exercised in the design of the cylinders to insure that all portions of the cylinder wall exposed to the hot gases are surrounded by cooling water, so that the entire cylinder is kept at a uniform temperature and distortion is prevented.
The motor and three-speed sliding change gear form a unit power plant which is suspended from the frame at three points. The front end is bolted to a 5-inch channel section cross member of the frame by two 5/8-inch steel bolts spaced 4 inches apart. At the rear end two arms extend from the motor, which are bolted direct to the frame side members. In addition, a steel channel cross member runs under the motor and helps to carry the weight.
A multiple disc clutch with cork inserts is used, the discs being of saw-blade tempered steel. It is housed in the flywheel and runs in a bath of oil. The change gear is provided with an aluminum casing, and its gears are made of open hearth nickel-vanadium steel, heat treated. The primary shaft of the transmission is supported in F. & S. annular ball bearings, and the countershaft in Hyatt roller bearings. The reverse Idler gear is mounted on a hardened shaft and is provided with a phosphor bronze bushing.
A three-quarter floating type of rear axle is used, with a malleable iron housing. It Is stiffened by a 5/8-inch under-running truss. Both sets of brakes act on rear wheel drums, the brake shafts being carried by heavily ribbed bronze brackets. The service brakes are external contracting and are operated by a pedal, while the emergency brakes are internal expanding and operated by a hand lever. Both sets are fitted with equalizers. The brake drums are 14 inches in diameter and have a 2-inch face. The front axle is an I-section drop forging with integral spring seats shaped to fit the bottom of the semi-elliptic front springs.
As already pointed out, the rear springs are of the floating cantilever type; they are 48 inches long by 2-1/2 inches wide and each spring has eight 5/16 leaves. Before assembling, the leaves are covered with graphite for purposes of lubrication. Both driving and braking strains are taken up by these springs and transmitted to double torque arms. Each spring is mounted on the frame by two brackets, and two bolts pass through double eyes at the rear end, anchoring the spring to the rear axle. All spring eyes are bushed with Tobin bronze bushings, which are provided with helical grooves packed with graphite lubricant. This arrangement is said to insure lubrication throughout the life of the spring.
The frame is of channel section pressed steel, being made from cold rolled stock. Its side members are 4 inches high, with a 3-inch flange which tapers at both ends and has a kick-up over the rear axle. The frame is narrowed in front to permit of a shorter turning radius. The frame stock is 5/32 inch thick. Five cross mem- bers are used, together with liberal-sized gusset plates, thus insuring a very rigid frame. All rivets are driven hot.
The radiator is of the V-type, of cellular construction, and has a capacity of about 10 quarts. It is made of bronze metal and encased in a brass frame with a rounded edge. A small bead stiffens the edge and adds to the appearance of the radiator. The gasoline tank is located under the cowl, is provided with a gauge and has a capacity of 15 gallons. Goodyear or Firestone tires are fitted, non-skids in the rear, the size being 34x4 inches all around. A tire carrier is mounted in the rear of the car.
The body is of the streamline type with full U-shaped doors and is leather upholstered. Among the equipment may be mentioned foot and robe rails, two disappearing auxiliary seats, one man top, quick adjustable curtains, slip cover concealing bows, automatic rain vision windshield, Gray & Davis lamps with dimmers, demountable rims, including an extra one; a tire iron, license bracket, electric horn, pump, jack, tools and tire repair kit. The fenders are crowned and the running boards are of pressed steel, linoleum covered and aluminum bound. The starting and lighting system is the new Gray & Davis system. A Willard 90 ampere-hour storage battery is used and the wiring is carried out on the ground return system. Ignition is by a Bosch magneto.
The Paige-Continental engine had an aluminum crankcase and cast iron unit block with a detachable head that enabled the car to throttle down to three miles per hour in high gear, then speed up within 30 seconds to 50 miles per hour. The streamlined body on the longer 124 inch wheelbase set it apart from the semi-streamlined Model 36 of 1914, and it made the straight-dash 1913 Model 36 look old-fashioned in comparison. The Six-46 had a zig-zag, cellular radiator. In addition, the radiator was v-shaped, which was a distinctive trademark that Paige used through 1923. The company claimed to have "again set the standard of value in the moderate priced field."
The buying public and auto critics received the new, larger Paige autos very well. The trend was definitely toward six-cylinder cars. During the course of the year further enhancements were made to the original "Six-46" models. The bodies were done in Richelieu Blue, and the wheels were now finished in a deep, rich red. A narrow bead of red added a touch of distinctive individuality to the front of the radiator. Company literature stated,
The strikingly beautiful body design of the "Six-46" is now set off with a painting finish so rich and lustrous that it is positively mirror-like. To secure this lasting brilliancy requires 24 days of painting and hand rubbing until it is ready for the final exquisite finish.
The prices were reduced $100, to just $1295. A permanent winter top was available for the touring car for only $250, which was "beautifully proportioned to match the Paige foreign-like beauty and made to fit the body with absolute accuracy." This top was made from a composite material called Agasote, "which will withstand any weather condition; just like metal, at the same time it is lighter in weight, is more soundproof; is rust-proof; therefore, preserves the paint finish." The top could be easily attached "by any one of limited mechanical ability."
Four closed models were also added to the series:
- Additional "Six-46" models
- Cabriolet, three-passenger, $1,600
- Coupé, three-passenger, $1,700
- Sedan, seven-passenger, $1,900
- Town car, seven-passenger, $2,250
The town car had room for a driver and one passenger in the open driving compartment and in the enclosed back section for three passengers on the back seat and two on auxiliary folding chairs. The town car "is a vehicle of pleasure and utility for the folks whose social position in a community demands exclusiveness and the ownership of the finest equipage." The driving compartment was upholstered in hand-buffed French glaze long grain leather of select quality.
Three distinct combinations of color and upholstery were available that would certainly have suited potential buyers in that day and age:
- Royal Blue body, black top, running gear in Valentine Moss Gray, and the interior in dark blue broadcloth or in light gray buff whipcord cloth.
- Brunswick Green body and running gear, black top, with the interior in gray Bedford cloth with a little green figure.
- Body in Battleship Gray, black top, running gear in Cleveland Gray with the interior in gray Bedford cloth with a light brown stripe.
The automobile industry in general was thriving! People everywhere were eager to replace their horse and buggy with an automobile. In 1915 Paige-Detroit wasn't the only manufacturer providing more car for less money. In the mid-priced range of six-cylinders cars it had plenty of competition, including Hupmobile, Studebaker, Buick, Overland, Moon, Auburn, Hudson, Velie, and Mitchell. A few, such as the Grant and the Saxon, cost less. And among higher priced six-cylinder autos were the Oakland, Kissel Kar, Apperson, Chalmers, National, Haynes and the air-cooled Franklin.
Paige-Detroit Increases Dividends. The Paige-Detroit Motor Co., Detroit, has increased its dividend from 4 to 7 per cent. a month, that for April having been at the rate of 84 per cent. a year. The company is capitalized at $250,000 and there are only 18 stockholders. The stock has a par value of $100, the last sale having been made on a basis of about $325. The company's net earnings are about $750,000, leaving a surplus of about $500,000 after the payment of dividends. The annual production is from 7000 to 8000 cars, including "fours" and "sixes." H. M. Jewett is president; E. H. Jewett, vice-president; William B. Cady, secretary, and Gilbert W. Lee, treasurer. (The Horseless Age, April 21, 1915)
The Penalty of Leadership
Paige-Detroit announced its new six-cylinder Paige autos in the January 2, 1915, issue of the Saturday Evening Post magazine. In that same issue the Cadillac Motor Car Co. placed the adjacent ad with the title "The Penalty of Leadership".
In September of 1914, after previously standing behind its four-cylinder engine and stating that it had no intention of marketing a six-cylinder car, Cadillac made the stunning announcement of its eight-cylinder, "V-type" engine. After the passage of several months Cadillac, in the person of Theodore McManus, who wrote Cadillac's advertising, presumably felt an explanation was in order.
Ninety years later "The Penalty of Leadership" remains famous. Compared to ads from Paige-Detroit and other auto makers, it is plain, but this was typical of McManus's work for Cadillac during this period. His ads were packed with text and only occasionally even showed a car. This one's provocative title, however, is as stiking today as it must have been then. The ad makes no extravagant product claims but instead warns the potential Cadillac customer that he must be willing to endure the envy of others for being in the forefront. And, yes, we know Cadillac makes motor cars, but nowhere in it is the reader told what exactly Cadillac is selling, other than status.
Whatever impact "The Penalty of Leadership" had on the public, it certainly made an impression on the advertising industry! Nothing quite like it had been seen before. It defined the Cadillac and made it stand out from other cars. Perhaps the best compliment to Cadillac, the self-proclaimed "Standard of the World", is that it is a style of ad that has been imitated many times since the original was published so long ago.
Four years later Cadillac repeated the ad in a different format in the January 11, 1919, issue of the Saturday Evening Post magazine.
By the middle of 1915, Paige-Detroit dropped its last two four-clinder cars. The company got a jump on the 1916 model year with a new, small six-cylinder car, the "Six-36" five-passenger touring car. The new "Hollywood" cost only $20 more than the "Four-36" Glenwood six:
- Touring car, five-passenger, Hollywood $1,095
This new car had a 112 inch wheelbase and 32 inch wheels with 32 x 4 tires. It had a double set of brakes on the rear wheels that expanded internally and contracted externally on 12 inch steel brake drums.
At the beginning of the 1916 model run, the "Six-46" line of eight models was unchanged from 1915.
- Cabriolet, three-passenger, $1,600
- Coupé, three-passenger, $1,700
- Roadster, three-passenger, Meadowbrook, $1,395
- Sedan, seven-passenger, $1,900
- Touring car, seven-passenger, Fairfield $1,395
- Town car, seven-passenger, $2,250
By the time the January, 1916, auto shows opened the the Hollywood "Six-36" had been replaced by the Fleetwood "Six-38" and additional models were added:
- Roadster, three-passenger, Dartmoor, $1,090
- Sedan, Five-passenger, $1,650
- Touring car, five-passenger, Fleetwood, $1,050
New Paige Fleetwood 6-38
The latest addition to the Paige line is known as the Fleetwood model Six-38, selling for $1,050, with roomy five-passenger touring body. The block cast six-cylinder engine has bore and stroke of 3-1/8 and 5 inches, respectively, and is designed to develop 38 h.p. under normal conditions of service. A removable cylinder head is fitted, the bottom portion of the crankcase is formed of sheet steel and the engine, with the transmission and clutch, forms a unit power plant. The multiple disc clutch, which is enclosed in the flywheel, is provided with thirty-six cork inserts in each of the seven driving discs and the three-speed selective clutch gears and shafts are of chrome nickel steel, heat treated and accurately ground. The shafts are carried on double row New Departure ball bearings and Hyatt roller bearings and the transmis- sion is enclosed in an aluminum case.
Engine lubrication is by combination splash and force feed, the actuating plunger pump being operated from the camshaft and forcing oil to main bearings and helical timing gears. A centrifugal pump operates the cooling system, the zigzag cellular radiator has a capacity of four and a quarter gallons and the fan is mounted on ball bearings.
Starting and lighting are taken care of by the Gray & Davis system with separate starting motor and lighting generator, the latter having an automatic electrical cut-out. A Remy high tension igntion system is standardized and a Willard six-volt storage battery forms part of the electrical equipment
The front axle is of orthodox I-beam section, drop forged and heat treated, with ball bearing spindles and both differential and shafts of the rear floating axle run on Hyatt high duty roller bearings. The propeller shaft is enclosed in a concentric tube which takes drive and torque strains. Internal expanding and external contracting brakes operate on twelve-inch rear wheel drums and the cantilever rear springs are of ample length to insure comfortable riding. The steering gear is of Jacox irreversible screw and split sleeve type, adjustable for wear, the steering wheel is formed of one piece with corrugated inside edge and the gravity feed gasoline tank of fourteen gallons capacity is located under the shroud dash. The Rayfield carburetor is fitted with hot air intake tube and dash adjustment.
The standard finish is Paige-Richelieu blue with straw colored wheels and nickel trimmings. Regular equipment includes Gray & Davis headlights with dimmers, electric tail light, electric horn, etc.
The Horseless Age Magazine, May 1, 1916
By July of 1916 certain relatively insignificant modifications had been made in both series. Prices were raised about $80 on the larger cars but only $40 on the smaller ones.
Paige cars continued to be quite popular. According to advertising copy, "In spite of the fact that our huge new factory has already been trebled in capacity; in spite of the recent installation of the most complete and modern factory equipment in the motor car industry; in spite of the fact that we have doubled and trebled our production in the last year and a half, we are still fighting that ever swelling demand."
The prospective owner was encouraged to heed the call of the open road and to let his local Paige dealer prescribe a cure for his troubles. Spring is in the air! What the harried businessman needs is a big, handsome, sturdy Paige Six-46! Nothing less will satisfy him; nothing more is needed by any man.
An ad that appeared in the September 1916 issue of Automobile Trade Journal referred to a climb on Mount Hood near Portland, Oregon. On July 10, 1916, a stock seven-passenger touring car climbed to a record height on the mountain. No car had ever succeeded in getting farther up the rocky and snow-clad side of Mount Hood than about halfway between Government Camp and the timber line.
This Paige managed in two days to proceed about three-quarters of a mile beyond the timber line. Once it passed Government Camp, "The car went on and up. The car, sheathed in ice, battled its way through snowdrifts, crossed a crevasse 2000 feet deep, toiled up 50 percent grades, and finally, before a sheer wall, stopped at an elevation of 9,500 feet above sea-level."
This event was staged by a Paige dealer who had the utmost confidence in the vehicle used. The results certainly proved the stamina of the cars, which in turn reflected well on the strength, character, and spirit of the whole Paige organization. The company's future seemed secure and bright, to be sure.
12,456 Paige Cars in 1916
Co. Has Monthly Turnover Equal to Its Capitalization
Detroit, Feb. 5 - The Paige-Detroit Motor Car Co., in its recent report, showed that it has manufactured 12,456 cars in 1916 up to Nov. 25 as compared 7749 cars for the year 1915 and 4631 in 1914.
The total sales for 1915 were $7,471,033.37, with a net income available for dividends of $609,775.87. Total sales for the 10 months ending Oct. 31, 1916, were $9,899,790.48, with a net income available foe dividends of $964,442.21. It now has a monthly turnover about equal to its capitalization.
In 1911 the authorized capital of the company was increased from $100,000 to $250,000, in 1915 to $500,000, in May, 1916 to $1,000,000 and again in September, 1916, to $1,500,000. This latter now has a common stock market value of $5,887,500. One thousand dollars invested in the Paige company in 1913 would now be worth $36,988.
The large "Six-46" and the small "Six-38" lasted until the end of 1916. They were included in the list of 1917 autos in "The Horseless Age" magazine of November 15, 1916, and in the same magazine's article of "Gasoline Cars at the New York Show" of January 1, 1917. By the end of January, 1917, Paige-Detroit introduced a new lineup of big and small sixes. The larger series became the "Six-51"; the smaller series became the "Six-39". The Fairfield seven-passenger "Six-46" touring car, first introduced in 1915, was still available at the original price.
- "Six-39" Series
- Roadster, two-/three-passenger, Dartmore (or Dartmoor), $1,175
- Sedan, five-passenger, $1,775
- Touring car, five-passenger, Linwood, $1,175
- "Six-46" Series
- Touring car, seven-passenger, Fairfield, $1,395
- "Six-51" Series
- Touring car, seven-passenger, Stratford, $1,495
- Roadster, four-passenger, Brooklands, $1,695
- Limousine, seven-passenger, $2,750
- Sedan, seven-passenger, $2,300
- Town car, seven-passenger, $2,750
The "Six-51" wheelbase was lengthened to 127 inches and prices ranged from $1,495 up to $2,750. Closed models featured v-shaped windshields, with the top half of each side capable of being opened as desired. Soon after the lineup was announced, the "Six-51" coupe was apparently discontinued. The sedan had a center-door body, but the limousine and town car had four doors. Wire wheels were an option. Paige ad copy claimed, "Without being too daring, the lines are fresh and new." Despite the box-like look that prevailed at the time, the new enclosed models could never be mistaken for any other car.
Probably the most unusual model in the lineup was the Brooklands four-door convertible roadster. Roadster owners must have been expected to drive without the top, because when in place it detracted from the look of the car. It almost appears to have been an afterthought on the part of Paige designers and engineers.
Personal Notes of the Automobile Trade
As a college lad Harry M. Jewett was a renowned athlete with world's records to his credit, won on the cinder path. Today, his associates believe that some of the same qualities that helped him to win his track laurels have been instrumental in placing him in the forefront of the motor car industry. Mr. Jewett is the president of the Paige-Detroit Motor Car Co., Detroit, Mich., and its active executive head, a position he has occupied since the company was organized about seven years ago.
He is a graduate of Notre Dame University, an engineer by profession and a man of wide experience, varied training and many interests. Early in his career be entered coal mining with the W. P. Rend Coal Company, of Chicago, and started in for himself in this business in Detroit in 1903. He was one of the organizers of the firm of Jewett, Bigelow and Brooks, miners and wholesale dealers in coal, of which concern he is still the president.As a college lad Harry M. Jewett was a renowned athlete with world's records to his credit, won on the cinder path. Today, his associates believe that some of the same qualities that helped him to win his track laurels have been instrumental in placing him in the forefront of the motor car industry. Mr. Jewett is the president of the Paige-Detroit Motor Car Co., Detroit, Mich., and its active executive head, a position he has occupied since the company was organized about seven years ago.
Mr. Jewett was a member of the Michigan Naval Reserve, serving in the war with Spain on board the U.S.S. Yosemite and he has always retained his interest in naval and military affairs, being especially active in the various recent plans to further national preparedness.
In the early nineties Mr. Jewett was nationally prominent in athletics and while proficient in any branch of field sports, was particularly conspicuous as a sprinter. He set a world's record of 21-1/5 seconds for the 220-yard dash and held the A.A.U. national title for that distance. Baseball and football were within his sphere. Now Mr. Jewett is content to play golf and take his thorough-bred hunters over five-bar fences.
The Horseless Age Magazine, March 1, 1917
The single "Six-39" closed model, a five-passenger sedan, had more conventional lines than its bigger "Six-51" cousins.
With the introduction of this new lineup, the company also switched from its previous slogan "The Standard of Value and Quality" to "The Most Beautiful Car in America," a slogan that remained in use for years. To our eyes today they might have some interesting design features, but otherwise they were typical of their day.
The effect on the economy of the U.S. entry into the European war caused Paige to increase prices $75 to $100 on all models during the course of the year.
1918 First Paige Truck
The entry of the U.S. in April of 1917 into the European war affected profoundly the auto industry. Government contracts had priority. Civilian automobile production for 1918 models declined as the supply of material dried up.
Nevertheless. before 1917 was over, Paige announced a 1918 lineup that featured only refinements in both series of six-cylinder models that otherwise stayed the same. Except for the Brooklands, which was carried forward from 1917, the larger series was now labeled "Six-55," while the smaller remained "Six-39."
- "Six-51" Series
- Roadster, four-passenger, Brooklands, $1,795
- "Six-55" Series
- Coupé, four-passenger, $2,850
- Limousine, seven-passenger, $3,230
- Sedan, seven-passenger, $2,850
- Sport roadster, four-passenger, Larchmont, $1,950
- Touring car, seven-passenger, Essex, $1,775
- Town car, seven-passenger, $3,230
The Essex seven-passenger touring, on the same 127 inch wheelbase as in 1917, made much of the rounded back of the body, "a feature that again marks the artistic genius of Paige designers." This apparently allowed a rear seat design that, according to the maker, allowed exceptional comfort unknown previously in touring cars of any size. This model came standard in royal blue