Power steering

In automobiles, power steering (also power assisted steering (PAS) or steering assist system) helps drivers steer by augmenting steering effort of the steering wheel.


Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc. which allows any vehicle (car, motorcycle, bicycle) to follow the desired course.

Forced induction

Forced induction is the process of delivering compressed air to the intake of an internal combustion engine.

Four wheel drive 4x4

Four-wheel drive, 4×4 ("four by four"), and 4WD, is a form of drivetrain capable of providing power to all wheel ends of a two-axled vehicle simultaneously.

Front wheel drive

Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.

European emission standards

European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU and EEA member states.

Traction control system

A traction control system (TCS), also known as ASR (from German Antriebsschlupfregelung, anti slip regulation), is typically (but not necessarily) a secondary function of the electronic stability control (ESC) on production motor vehicles

Electronic stability control ESC

Electronic stability control (ESC), also referred to as electronic stability program (ESP) or dynamic stability control (DSC), is a computerized technology that improves a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing loss of traction (skidding). 

Expansion chamber

On a two-stroke engine, an expansion chamber or tuned pipe is a tuned exhaust system used to enhance its power output by improving its volumetric efficiency

Volumetric efficiency

Volumetric efficiency in internal combustion engine engineering is defined as the ratio of the mass density of the air-fuel mixture drawn into the cylinder at atmospheric pressure (during the intake stroke) to the mass density of the same volume of air in the intake manifold.