Carrozzeria Boneschi

Carrozzeria Boneschi S.r.L. (established 1919 near Milano) is an Italian coachbuilder, mainly of commercial vehicles.


Gruppo Bertone, commonly known simply as Bertone, was an Italian automobile company, which specialized in car styling, coachbuilding and manufacturing.

Carrozzeria Allemano

Carrozzeria Allemano (established 1928, discontinued 1965) was an automobile coachbuilder in Turin, Italy, owned by Serafino Allemano.

Engine knocking and pinging

Knocking (also knockdetonationspark knockpinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not start off correctly in response to ignition by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.

Kahn Design

Kahn Design is a British-based engineering company that specialises in producing bespoke vehicles.


Wilhelm Karmann GmbH, known commonly as Karmann, in Osnabrück, Germany, was until 2009 the largest independent motor vehiclemanufacturing company in Germany.


The coachbuilding company Hebmüller Sons (Karosseriewerke Joseph Hebmüller Söhne) was founded in 1889 by Joseph Hebmüller, it was established in the town of Wuppertal in Germany.


Founded by cabinet maker Jacques Saoutchik (born Iakov Savtchuk in Russian Empire in 1880), Saoutchik was a top-class French coachbuilding company founded in 1906.


Carrosserie Vanvooren was a French Coachbuilder based in the north-western Paris suburb of Courbevoie.

Carrosserie Pourtout

Carrosserie Pourtout was a French coachbuilding company.



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