|Founded||13 September 1939in Modena, Italy (as Auto Avio Costruzioni)|
Ferrari N.V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940.
However the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed.
Ferrari is the world's most powerful brand according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, selling in a private transaction for US$38.1 million to American communications magnate Craig McCaw.
Fiat S.p.A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p.A. from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90 percent of Ferrari. The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V. (a company incorporated in the Netherlands) as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10 percent of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016.
Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it is the most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships (16) and having produced the highest number of winning drivers (15). Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, luxury and wealth.
Unlike many similar yet independent companies, Fiat Group-owned Ferrari continued to thrive after the death of its charismatic founder and is today one of the most successful sports car companies in the world. In January 2016 Ferrari has officially split off from its former parent company Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.
Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari (pronounced [skudeˈriːa]) literally means "Ferrari Stable" and is usually used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought, prepared and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers. In 1933 Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938 Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milano and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department; therefore the Scuderia Ferrari was disbanded.
In September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days later he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari. The new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform. It was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. The factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production.
The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine; Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built and sold his automobiles to fund Scuderia Ferrari.
The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.A. (Società Esercizio Fabbriche Automobili e Corse).
Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, and work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range also received a boost.
In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death later that year, and arguably one of the most famous supercars ever made. In 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S.p.A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, which was introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made (minus the 400th which was donated to the Vatican for charity) had a price tag of $650,000 apiece (equivalent to £400,900).
On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million (equivalent to £99,950,000) attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record.
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, who was succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and finally on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company.
On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari. The aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10 percent of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015. Ferrari officially priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015.
1929-1937 - Scuderia Ferrari
Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. The Scuderia bought, prepared and fielded racing cars for gentleman drivers. It rapidly became a technical-racing outpost of Alfa Romeo and effectively took over as its official racing department in 1933 when Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team. The Scuderia was then supplied with Alfa Romeo P3 monopostos and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. The Ferrari's monopostos were now sporting the Prancing Horse shield on the engine cover. In 1935 the Ferrari's workshop designed and built its first race car, the Alfa Romeo Bimotore, taking the first steps on the route to become a car manufacturer. Moreover, during 1937 the first examples of Alfetta 158 were assembled in Modena under Enzo Ferrari's supervision. In 1938 Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milano and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department. At the same time the Scuderia Ferrari was disbanded.
1939-1946 - Auto Avio Costruzioni
On September 6, 1939, Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he won't use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days later he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari in Modena. The new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft parts but in 1940 Ferrari did in fact build two examples of a race car – the Auto Avio Costruzioni 815, based on a Fiat 508C platform. It was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. During the war the company's focus was mostly on fabricating grinding machines which were copies of original German tooling machines. The factory was bombed by the Allies between 1944 and 1945, but it was quickly rebuilt. In late 1945, after the war ended, Ferrari commissioned Gioacchino Colombo the design of a new V12 engine. In December 1946 Ferrari released to the press the specifications and drawings of his new car.
1947-1961 - The beginning
The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 Sport, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine. On March 12, Enzo Ferrari took the car out for its first test-drive on the open roads. Two examples debuted on May 11, 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit, driven by Franco Cortese and Nino Farina. This was the first time a Ferrari-badged car was entered in a race. In 1950, Ferrari fielded racing cars in the Monaco Grand Prix, the first World Championship event held there. José Froilán González won the first Grand Prix for Ferrari in 1951, and Alberto Ascari secured Ferrari's first World title in 1952, a task he would repeat the following season. In 1957 the company changed its name to Auto Costruzioni Ferrari.
1961 - The great walkout
Enzo Ferrari's strong personality had served his company and racing team, Scuderia Ferrari, well for decades. Internal tensions reached boiling point in November 1961. Long-time sales manager Girolamo Gardini had long chafed at the involvement of Enzo's wife, Laura, in the company. The two frequently argued, and their dispute became a crisis for the company when Gardini, together with manager Romolo Tavoni, chief engineer Carlo Chiti, experimental sports car development chief Giotto Bizzarrini, made an ultimatum to Ferrari, demanding the removal of his wife from the company in a letter.
As a result, Ferrari called a meeting where Gardini, Tavoni, Chiti, Bizzarrini and a number of others who stood by them were ousted. All were tremendous losses to the company, and many thought this might be the end of Ferrari. Indeed, the defectors immediately formed a new company, ATS, to directly compete with Ferrari on the street and the track, and took with them Scuderia Serenissima, one of Ferrari's best racing customers.
This "great walkout" came at an especially difficult time for Ferrari. At the urging of Chiti, the company was developing a new 250-based model to defend its honor against the Jaguar E-Type. Development of this car, the 250 GTO, was at a critical point, with the chassis development and styling left incomplete. Even if the car could be finished, it was unclear if it could be raced successfully without Tavoni and his lieutenants.
Into this void stepped young engineer Mauro Forghieri and long-time racing bodyman Sergio Scaglietti. Forghieri successfully honed the GTO's handling and Scaglietti designed an all-new body for the car. The GTO went to Sebring with driver Phil Hill and placed first in class. It continued winning through 1962, brushing aside the challenge from Jaguar and becoming one of the most famous sports cars in history.
This shakeup, and Forghieri's engineering talent, made the 1960s even more successful for Ferrari than the previous decade. The mid-engined Dino racers laid the foundation for Forghieri's dominant 250-powered 250 P. On the street, the Dino road cars sold strongly, and legendary models like the 275 and Daytona were on the way.
1963-1967 - The US rivals
The big V8-powered Shelby Cobra challenged the Ferraris in the early 1960s. By mid the 1960s, Ford tried to buy Ferrari but no agreement was reached. Instead, the Ford GT40 ended the dominance of Ferrari Prototypes at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1966 when GT-40 Mark IIs finished 1-2-3.
1968 - Ferrari boycott
After the performance of the big V8-powered Ford at the 1967 Le Mans, the FIA banned prototypes over 3000cc, which also affected the 330Ps. The change was announced in late 1967 and came in effect for 1968; for that season, the Scuderia did not take part in sports car racing in protest.
1969-1971 - Porsche
These years saw a new challenger. Formerly competing with smaller cars only, the Germans entered the new 3 litre sports car prototype class in 1968 with the Porsche 908, while Ferrari raced the Ferrari 312P in only few events in 1969. In March, the presentation of the 5 litre Porsche 917, built in advance in 25 exemplars, had surprised also Ferrari, which answered later that year with the production of 25 Ferrari 512S, funded from the money gained by the FIAT deal. At that time, Porsche had almost a full season of experience with their new car, and took the World Sportscar Championship where Ferrari was only 4th.
The 1970 season saw epic battles between the two teams and the many cars they entered, yet Porsche won every event except Sebring, where the victorious car and its drivers Ignazio Giunti/Nino Vaccarella/Mario Andretti had their origins in Italy. Ferrari decided to give up the 512 in 1971 in order to prepare the new 312PB for the 1972 season, when only 3 litre class would be allowed. In addition to Porsche, the old national rival with its Alfa Romeo T33/3 also had won two races in 1971, and thus was ranked second in the World Championship, above Ferrari.
1969 - Fiat
Early in 1969, Fiat S.p.A. took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, and work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range also received a boost.
Less positive was the effect on industrial relations at Ferrari's Maranello plant. In June a visiting journalist witnessed a group of workers suddenly running out of a workshop in response to the blast of a whistle: this was part of an industrial stoppage originating at the main Fiat plant in Turin, and contrasted with the relatively smooth state of production that the writer had witnessed at competitor plants nearby.
While increased Fiat influence was quickly felt in the development, production and marketing of road cars, the racing department remained initially little touched by Fiat's new status within the company as chief investor.
1972-1973 - dominance, defeats and fare-well
The 312PB dominated the World Sportscar Championship in 1972 against a rival Alfa Romeo, as the Porsche factory did not compete after the rule changes, and Matra focused on Le Mans only. In their home race, the French won, as Ferrari did not enter in 1972 due insufficient reliability over 24 hours, in order not to blemish their otherwise perfect record in that season.
In 1973, though, the Matra team also challenged for the championship which Ferrari eventually lost with two wins, compared to Matra's five, while Alfa Romeo had not entered that year. In addition, Ferrari was now forced to race also at Le Mans, despite concerns that even the modified engine would not last. Yet, one car survived and scored an unexpected and honourable 2nd place.
Ferrari then retired from Sports car racing to focus on the railing F1 effort.
1974-1987 - Niki Lauda and the 1980s
Ferrari enjoyed a successful spell in Formula 1 in the 1970s, with Niki Lauda winning the World Championship in 1975 and 1977, and Jody Scheckter in 1979. In the 1980s, however, the team entered a period of crisis, culminating with the death of Gilles Villeneuve in Belgium in 1982 and a nearly-fatal accident for Didier Pironi in Germany the very same year.
1988 - The death of Enzo
Enzo Ferrari died in 1988, at the age of 90. The last new model he commissioned was the specialist F40. Fiat increased its stake in Ferrari to 90% after buying the shares of its founder. Former Sporting Director Luca Cordero di Montezemolo was appointed President in 1991.
1996 - Champion Schumacher to Scuderia Ferrari
The hiring of Jean Todt as Sporting director in 1993 and Michael Schumacher in 1996 triggered a comeback of the F1 team, with three wins in 1996, and close yet eventually losing challenges to the driver's championship in the years 1997 to 1999.
2000-2004 - Schumacher Dominates F1
In an unprecedented and record-setting fashion, Schumacher and Ferrari dominated F1 winning the World Driver's championship from 2000 through 2004 and the Constructors' Championship from 1999 through 2004.
2002-2010 - New shareholders
In June 2002 Fiat sold 34% of Ferrari to a Mediobanca-led consortium of banks for €775.2 millions. The consortium comprised Commerzbank (who got a 10% stake for €228 millions),Banca Popolare dell'Emilia Romagna (1.5%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (1%). Mediobanca retained a 21.5% stake. In July 2005 Mediobanca sold 5% of Ferrari to Mubadala Development Company, an investment company wholly owned by the Government of Abu Dhabi. The deal saw Mubadala pay €114 million to purchase the five percent stake.
In October 2006 Fiat bought back the 29% stake still owned by the consortium, paying €892 millions. At the time of the transaction, Mediobanca owned a 11.7% stake, Commerzbank the 8.5%, ABN AMRO the 7,5% and Banca Popolare dell'Emilia Romagna the 1,3%.
In November 2010 Fiat paid €122 million to buy back the last 5% stake owned by Mubadala Development. With this transaction, Fiat's stake in the luxury Italian car maker returned back to 90%.
2014-2016 - The spin-off
In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90% of Ferrari.
The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V. as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of a 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remainings steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with a 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari.
On January 3, 2016, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. and Ferrari N.V. announced the completion of separation of the Ferrari business from the FCA group on the same day, with trading on the Mercato Telematico Azionario set to begin on January 4, 2016, under the RACE ticker symbol and the ISIN code NL0011585146.
Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other teams and for one make race series.
The 1940 AAC 815 was the first racing car to be designed by Enzo Ferrari, although it was not badged as a Ferrari model.
Scuderia Ferrari has participated in several classes of motorsport, though it is currently only officially involved in Formula One. It is the only team to have competed in the Formula One World Championship continuously since its inception in 1950. José Froilán González gave the team its first F1 victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix.
Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first Drivers Championship a year later. Ferrari is the oldest team in the championship, and the most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record. As of 2014[update], the team's records include 15 World Drivers Championship titles (1952, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1964, 1975, 1977, 1979, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2007) 16 World Constructors Championship titles (1961, 1964, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2008), 221 Grand Prix victories, 6736.27 points, 679 podium finishes, 207 pole positions, and 230 fastest laps in 890 Grands Prix contested. Of the 19 tracks used in 2014, 8 have lap records set by the Ferrari F2004, with a further 3 set by the Ferrari F2003-GA, Ferrari F2008 and Ferrari F10.
Ferrari drivers include: Tazio Nuvolari, José Froilán González, Juan Manuel Fangio, Alberto Ascari, Luigi Chinetti, Maurice Trintignant, Wolfgang von Trips, Phil Hill, Olivier Gendebien, Mike Hawthorn, Peter Collins, Giancarlo Baghetti, Ricardo Rodríguez, Chris Amon, John Surtees, Lorenzo Bandini, Ludovico Scarfiotti, Jacky Ickx, Mario Andretti, Clay Regazzoni, Niki Lauda, Carlos Reutemann, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Didier Pironi, Patrick Tambay, René Arnoux, Michele Alboreto, Gerhard Berger, Nigel Mansell, Alain Prost, Jean Alesi, Michael Schumacher, Eddie Irvine, Rubens Barrichello, Felipe Massa, Kimi Räikkönen, Fernando Alonso, and Sebastian Vettel.
At the end of the 2006 season, the team courted controversy by continuing to allow Marlboro to sponsor them after they, along with the other F1 teams, made a promise to end sponsorship deals with tobacco manufacturers. A five-year deal was agreed and although this was not due to end until 2011, in April 2008 Marlboro dropped their on-car branding on Ferrari.
In addition to Formula One, Ferrari also entered cars in sportscar racing, the two programs existing in parallel for many years.
In 1949, Luigi Chinetti drove a 166 M to Ferrari's first win in motorsports, the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Ferrari went on to dominate the early years of the World Sportscar Championship which was created in 1953, winning the title seven out of its first nine years.
When the championship format changed in 1962, Ferrari earned titles in at least one class each year through to 1965 and then again in 1967. Ferrari would win one final title, the 1972 World Championship of Makes before Enzo decided to leave sports car racing after 1973 and allow Scuderia Ferrari to concentrate solely on Formula One.
During Ferrari's seasons of the World Sportscars Championship, they also gained more wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with the factory team earning their first in 1954. Another win would come in 1958, followed by five consecutive wins from 1960 to 1964. Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) would take Ferrari's final victory at Le Mans in 1965.
Although Scuderia Ferrari no longer participated in sports cars after 1973, they have occasionally built various successful sports cars for privateers. These include the BB 512 LM in the 1970s, the 333 SP which won the IMSA GT Championship in the 1990s, and currently the 458 GT2 and GT3 which are currently winning championships in their respective classes.
Race cars for other teams
Throughout its history, Ferrari has supplied racing cars to other entrants, aside from its own works Scuderia Ferrari team.
In the 1950s and '60s, Ferrari supplied Formula One cars to a number of private entrants and other teams. One famous example was Tony Vandervell's team, which raced the Thinwall Special modified Ferraris before building their own Vanwall cars. The North American Racing Team's entries in the final three rounds of the 1969 season were the last occasions on which a team other than Scuderia Ferrari entered a World Championship Grand Prix with a Ferrari car.
Ferrari supplied cars complete with V8 engines for the A1 Grand Prix series, from the 2008-09 season. The car was designed by Rory Byrne and is styled to resemble the 2004 Ferrari Formula one car.
Ferrari currently runs a customer GT program for a racing version of its 458 model, and has done so for the 458's predecessors, dating back to the 355 in the late 1990s. Such private teams as the American Risi Competizione and Italian AF Corse teams have been very successful with Ferrari GT racers over the years. This car, made for endurance sportscar racing to be competed against such racing versions of the Audi R8, McLaren MP4-12C, and BMW Z4 has proven to be successful, but not as successful as its predecessor, the F430. The Ferrari Challenge is a one make racing series for the Ferrari 458. The FXX is not road legal, and is therefore only used for track events.
Ferrari's first vehicle was the 125 S sports/racing model. In 1949, the Ferrari 166 Inter was introduced. The presentation of this car marked the company's first move into the grand touring market, which continues to make up the bulk of Ferrari sales to the present day.
Several early cars featured bodywork customised by a number of coachbuilders such as Pininfarina, Zagato and Bertone.
The Dino was the first mid-engined Ferrari. This layout would go on to be used in most Ferraris of the 1980s and 1990s. V8 Ferrari models make up well over half of the marque's total production.
For a time, Ferrari built 2+2 versions of its mid-engined V8 cars. Although they looked quite different from their 2-seat counterparts, both the GT4 and Mondial were closely related to the 308 GTB.
The company has also produced front-engined 2+2 cars, culminating in the current California.
Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. The later Testarossa remains one of the most famous Ferraris.
|488 GTB||488 Spider||California T||F12berlinetta|
|F12tdf||GTC4Lusso / GTC4Lusso T||LaFerrari||LaFerrari Aperta|
The company's loftiest efforts have been in the supercar market. The 1984 GTO (288 GTO) may be considered the first in the line of Ferrari supercars, which extends to the recent LaFerrari model.
Concept cars and specials
Ferrari has produced a number of concept cars, such as the Ferrari Mythos. While some of these were quite radical (such as the Ferrari Modulo) and never intended for production, others such as the Ferrari Mythos have shown styling elements which were later incorporated into production models.
The most recent concept car to be produced by Ferrari themselves was the 2010 Ferrari Millechili.
A number of one-off special versions of Ferrari road cars have also been produced, commissioned to coachbuilders by wealthy owners. Recent examples include the Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina and the Ferrari 612 Kappa.
Ferrari Special Projects
The Special Projects programme was launched in the late 2000s as Ferrari's ultimate in-house personalization service, enabling customers to own bespoke bodied one-offs based on modern Ferrari road cars. Engineering and design is done by Ferrari, sometimes in cooperation with external design houses like Pininfarina or Fioravanti, and the vehicles receive full homologation to be road legal. The first car to be completed under this programme was the 2008 Ferrari SP1, commissioned by a Japanese business executive, the second was the P540 Superfast Aperta, commissioned by an American collector. The following is a list of Special Projects cars that have been made public:
|Name||Picture||Year||Based on||Commissioned by||Notes|
|Ferrari SP1||2008||F430||Junichiro Hiramatsu||Design by Leonardo Fioravanti.|
|Ferrari P540 Superfast Aperta||2009||599 GTB||Edward Walson||Inspired by a similarly gold-painted and open-topped one-off built by Carrozzeria Fantuzzi on a Ferrari 330 LMB chassis.|
|Ferrari Superamerica 45||2011||599 GTB||Peter Kalikow||Rotating targa top; design by Pininfarina|
|Ferrari SP12 EC||2012||458 Italia||Eric Clapton||Design by Centro Stile Ferrari and Pininfarina, in hommage to the Ferrari 512 BB.|
|Ferrari SP30||2013||599 GTO||Cheerag Arya|
|Ferrari SP FFX||—||FF||Shin Okamoto||Design by Pininfarina|
|Ferrari F12 TRS||2014||F12berlinetta||—||Barchetta body, inspired by the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa. Design by Centro Stile Ferrari.|
|Ferrari SP America||2014||F12berlinetta||Danny Wegman|
|Ferrari 458 MM Speciale||2016||458 Speciale||—||Design by Centro Stile Ferrari.|
|Ferrari SP275 RW Competizione||2016||F12tdf|
|Ferrari J50||2016||488 Spider||—|
Bio-fuel and hybrid cars
A F430 Spider that runs on ethanol was displayed at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. At the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, Ferrari unveiled a hybrid version of their flagship 599. Called the "HY-KERS Concept", Ferrari's hybrid system adds more than 100 horsepower on top of the 599 Fiorano's 612 HP. Also in mid-2014, the flagship LaFerrari was put into production.
Until the early 1980s, Ferrari followed a three-number naming scheme based on engine displacement:
- V6 and V8 models used the total displacement (in decilitres) for the first two digits and the number of cylinders as the third. Thus, the 206 was a 2.0 L V6 powered vehicle, while the 348 used a 3.4 L V8, although, for the F355, the last digit refers to 5 valves per cylinder. Upon introduction of the 360 Modena, the digits for V8 models (which now carried a name as well as a number) refer only to total engine displacement. The numerical indication aspect of this name carried on to the F430, however the F430's replacement, the 458 Italia uses the same naming as the 206 and 348.
- V12 models used the displacement (in cubic centimetres) of one cylinder. Therefore, the famed 365 Daytona had a 4390 cc V12. However, some newer V12-engined Ferraris, such as the 599, have three-number designations that refer only to total engine displacement.
- Flat 12 (boxer) models used the displacement in litres for the first digit and the number of cylinders for the next two digits. Therefore, the BB 512 was five litre flat 12 (a Berlinetta Boxer, in this case). However, the original Berlinetta Boxer was the 365 GT4 BB, which was named in a similar manner to the V12 models.
- Flagship models (aka "Halo Cars") use the letter F followed by the anniversary in years, such as the F40 and F50. The Enzo skipped this rule, although the F60 name was applied to a Ferrari Formula One car and is sometimes attached to the Enzo.
- Some models, such as the 1980 Mondial and the 1984 Testarossa did not follow a three-number naming scheme.
Most Ferraris were also given designations referring to their body style. In general, the following conventions were used:
- M ("Modificata"), placed at the end of a model's number, denotes a modified version of its predecessor and not a complete evolution (see F512 M and 575 M Maranello).
- GTB ("Gran Turismo Berlinetta") models are closed Berlinettas, or coupés.
- GTS ("Gran Turismo Spider") in older models, are open Spiders, or convertibles (see 365 GTS/4); however, in more recent models, this suffix is used for targa top models (see Dino 246 GTS, and F355 GTS; the exception being the 348 TS, which is the only targa named differently). The convertible models now use the suffix "Spider" (spelt "i") (see F355 Spider, and 360 Spider).
- GTO ("Gran Turismo Omologata"), placed at the end of a model's number, denotes a modified version of its predecessor. Indeed, those three letters designate a model which has been designed and improved for racetrack use while still being a street-legal model. Only three models bear those three letters; the 250 GTO of 1962, the 288 GTO of 1984 and the 599 GTO of 2010.
This naming system can be confusing, as some entirely different vehicles used the same engine type and body style. Many Ferraris also had other names affixed (like Daytona) to identify them further. Many such names are actually not official factory names. The Daytona name commemorates Ferrari's triple success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with the 330 P4. Only in the 1973 Daytona 24 Hours, a 365 GTB/4 model run by NART (who raced Ferrari's in America) ran second, behind a Porsche 911.
The various Dino models were named for Enzo's son, Dino Ferrari, and were marketed as Dinos by Ferrari and sold at Ferrari dealers—for all intents and purposes they are Ferraris.
In the mid-1990s, Ferrari added the letter "F" to the beginning of all models (a practice abandoned after the F512 M and F355, but adopted again with the F430, but not with its successor, the Ferrari 458 ).
The famous symbol of the Ferrari race team is the Cavallino Rampante ("prancing horse") black prancing stallion on a yellow shield, usually with the letters S F (for Scuderia Ferrari), with three stripes of green, white and red (the Italian national colors) at the top. The road cars have a rectangular badge on the hood (see picture at top of page), and, optionally, the shield-shaped race logo on the sides of both front wings, close to the door.
On 17 June 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a race at the Savio track in Ravenna where he met the Countess Paolina, mother of Count Francesco Baracca, an ace of the Italian air force and national hero of World War I, who used to paint a horse on the side of his planes. The Countess asked Enzo to use this horse on his cars, suggesting that it would bring him good luck. The original "prancing horse" on Baracca's airplane was painted in red on a white cloud-like shape, but Ferrari chose to have the horse in black (as it had been painted as a sign of grief on Baracca's squadron planes after the pilot was killed in action) and he added a canary yellow background as this is the color of the city of Modena, his birthplace. The Ferrari horse was, from the very beginning, markedly different from the Baracca horse in most details, the most noticeable being the tail that in the original Baracca version was pointing downward.
Ferrari has used the cavallino rampante on official company stationery since 1929. Since the Spa 24 Hours of 9 July 1932, the cavallino rampante has been used on Alfa Romeos raced by Scuderia Ferrari.
The motif of a prancing horse is old, it can be found on ancient coins. A similar black horse on a yellow shield is the Coat of Arms of the German city of Stuttgart, home of Mercedes-Benz and the design bureau of Porsche, both being main competitors of Alfa and Ferrari in the 1930s. The city's name derives from Stutengarten, an ancient form of the German word Gestüt, which translates into English as stud farm and into Italian as scuderia. Porsche also includes the Stuttgart sign in its corporate logo, centred in the emblem of the state of Württemberg. Stuttgart's Rössle has both rear legs firmly planted on the soil, like Baracca's horse, but unlike Ferrari's cavallino.
Fabio Taglioni used the cavallino rampante on his Ducati motorbikes, as Taglioni was born at Lugo di Romagna like Baracca, and his father too was a military pilot during WWI (although not part of Baracca's squadron, as is sometimes mistakenly reported). As Ferrari's fame grew, Ducati abandoned the horse- perhaps the result of a private agreement between the two companies.
The cavallino rampante is the visual symbol of Ferrari. Cavallino Magazine uses the name, but not the logo. Other companies use similar logos: Avanti, an Austrian company operating over 100 filling stations, uses a prancing horse logo which is nearly identical to Ferrari's, as does Iron Horse Bicycles and Norfolk Southern Railway.
Since the 1920s, Italian race cars of Alfa Romeo, Maserati and later Ferrari and Abarth were (and often still are) painted in "race red" (Rosso Corsa). This was the customary national racing color of Italy, as recommended between the World Wars by the organizations that later would become the FIA. It refers to the nationality of the competing team, not that of the car manufacturer or driver. In that scheme, French-entered cars such as Bugatti were blue, German such as Benz and Mercedes white (since 1934 also bare sheet metal silver), and British green such as the mid-1960s Lotus and BRM, for instance.
Ferrari won the 1964 World championship with John Surtees by competing the last two races in North America with cars painted in the US-American race colors white and blue, as these were not entered by the Italian factory themselves, but by the U.S.-based North American Racing Team (NART) team. This was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car.
In 1963, Enzo Ferrari was approached by the Ford Motor Company about a possible buy out. Ford audited Ferrari's assets but legal negotiations and talks were unilaterally cut off by Ferrari when he realized that the deal offered by Ford would not enable him to stay at the helm of the company racing program. Henry Ford II consequently directed his racing division to negotiate with Lotus, Lola, and Cooper to build a car capable of beating Ferrari on the world endurance circuit, eventually resulting in the production of the Ford GT40 in 1964.
As the Ford deal fell through, FIAT approached Ferrari with a more flexible proposal and purchased controlling interests in the company in 1969. Enzo Ferrari retained a 10 percent share, which is currently owned by his son Piero Lardi Ferrari.
Ferrari has an internally managed merchandising line that licenses many products bearing the Ferrari brand, including eyewear, pens, pencils, electronic goods, perfume, cologne, clothing, high-tech bicycles, watches, cell phones and laptop computers.
Ferrari also runs a museum, the Museo Ferrari in Maranello, which displays road and race cars and other items from the company's history.
Ferrari has had a long-standing relationship with Shell Oil. It is a technical partnership with Ferrari and Ducati to test as well as supply fuel and oils to the Formula One, MotoGP and World Superbike racing teams. For example, the Shell V-Power premium gasoline fuel has been developed with the many years of technical expertise between Shell and Ferrari.
Ferrari have had agreements to supply Formula One engines to a number of other teams over the years, and currently supply Sauber F1 Team, and Haas F1 Team.
As of 2008, the estimated total of Ferrari built and sold cars in whole company history was about 130,000.
|Year||Sales to end customers (number of type-approved vehicles)|
- * Figure refers to units produced rather than to units sold.
- † Figure refers to units shipped rather than to units sold.
Approximately thirty Ferrari boutiques exist worldwide, with two owned by Ferrari and the rest operating as franchises. The stores sell branded clothes, accessories and racing memorabilia. Clothing includes upscale and lower priced collections for men, women, and children.
Some stores include race car simulation games for entertainment.