|Headquarters||Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK|
Triumph Motorcycles Ltd is the largest British motorcycle manufacturer, established in 1983 by John Bloor after the original company Triumph Engineering went into receivership.
The new company (initially Bonneville Coventry Ltd) continued Triumph's record of motorcycle production since 1902 During the 12 months preceding June 2017, Triumph sold 63,400 motorcycles
When Triumph Engineering went into receivership in 1983, John Bloor bought the name and manufacturing rights from the Official Receiver. The new company's manufacturing plant and designs were outdated and unable to compete against the Japanese, so Bloor decided against relaunching Triumph immediately. Initially, production of the old Bonneville was continued under licence by Les Harris of Racing Spares, in Newton Abbot, Devon, to bridge the gap between the end of the old company and the start of the new company. For five years from 1983, about 14 a week were built at peak production. In the United States, owing to problems with liability insurance, the Harris Bonnevilles were never imported.
Bloor set to work assembling the new Triumph, hiring several of the group's former designers to begin work on new models. The team visited Japan on a tour of its competitors' facilities and became determined to adopt Japanese manufacturing techniques and especially new-generation computer-controlled machinery. In 1985, Triumph purchased a first set of equipment to begin working, in secret, on its new prototype models. By 1987, the company had completed its first engine. In 1988, Bloor funded the building of a new factory at a 10-acre (40,000 m2) site in Hinckley, Leicestershire. The first Hinckley Triumph's were produced for the 1991 model year. Bloor put between £70 million and £100 million into the company between purchasing the brand and breaking even in 2000.
At the same time as production capacity increased, Bloor established a new network of export distributors. He had previously created two subsidiary companies, Triumph Deutschland GmbH and Triumph France SA. In 1994, Bloor created Triumph Motorcycles America Ltd.
At 21:00 on 15 March 2002, as the company was preparing to celebrate its 100th anniversary as a motorcycle maker, its main factory was destroyed by a fire which began at the rear of the facility. At the height of the blaze, over 100 firefighters were tackling the fire, which destroyed most of the manufacturing capacity. Nevertheless, the company, which by then employed more than 650, quickly rebuilt the facility and returned to production by September that year.
In May 2002, Triumph began construction on a new sub-assembly manufacturing facility in Chonburi, Thailand to make various components. A second factory was opened in 2006 by Prince Andrew, Duke of York where a wet painting facility and assembly line have been established. A third factory was opened in 2007 to include high pressure die-casting and machining, and Triumph announced that they were expanding to increase capacity to over 130,000 motorcycles. Triumph Motorcycles (Thailand) Limited is a 100% UK owned company and now employs about 1000 staff.
In June 2009 Digby Jones, Baron Jones of Birmingham, the former Minister of State for Trade, became chairman and the 1,600 cc (98 cu in) Thunderbird twin-cylinder cruiser was announced.
In early 2011 Nick Bloor, John Bloor's son, took over from Tue Mantoni as CEO of Triumph Motorcycles and in 2017 Triumph opened a new £4 million visitor centre.
In 2017, Triumph's revenue increased by 22 per cent to £498.5 million and this increased pre-tax profits to £24.7 million from £16.6 million the previous year.
Over 85 per cent of motorcycles are now sold in overseas markets, but the 9,400 motorcycles sold in the UK in 2017 represents a record for the company.
Bloor invested over £80 million in Triumph Motorcycles before it first broke even in 2000.
During the 2008 recession, Bloor Holdings – which controls Triumph - breached its banking covenants but was able to re-negotiate its loans with lenders.
A range of new 750 cc and 900 cc triple-cylinder bikes and 1000 cc and 1200 cc four-cylinder bikes were launched at the September 1990 Cologne Motorcycle Show. The motorcycles used famous model names from the glory days of Meriden Triumph and were first made available to the public between March (Trophy 1200 being the first) and September 1991. All used a modular liquid-cooled DOHC engine design in a common large diameter steel backbone frame. The modular design was to ensure that a variety of models could be offered whilst keeping production costs under control—an idea originally put forward, in air-cooled form, in the early 1970s by Bert Hopwood but not implemented by the then BSA-Triumph company.
The first models, known generically as the T300s, all used a common piston diameter (76 mm) in a common wet cylinder liner. Basic engine variations were achieved through the use of two specifications of piston stroke: 65 mm to create individual cylinder capacity of 300 cc, and 55mm to create a 250 cc individual cylinder. Two 750 cc models were released – and the Daytona and Trident 750 triples (3 x 250 cc). There was one 1000 cc model – the Daytona 1000 four (4 x 250 cc). Two 900 cc models were the Trophy 900 and Trident 900 triples (3 x 300 cc). The Trophy 1200 four was the largest model (4 x 300 cc). All were remarkably smooth running. The three cylinder models were equipped with a contra-rotating balance shaft mounted at the front of the engine. The four cylinder models benefitted from twin balance shafts – unique at the time – mounted beneath the crank shaft. Contemporary road tests noted the solidity and smoothness of performance as positives but the weight of the machines as negatives. For brand new machines produced by a totally new concern, there were remarkably few early problems. These were an insecure oil pressure switch and a longer-lived problem with the starter (or sprag clutch). The cosmetic finish on the first machines was simple and not very robust. Revisions to crankcases for the three-cylinder models in 1993, together with a move to high pressure casting, reduced engine weight considerably. All painting and plating operations were brought in house in 1993, as the Hinckley factory benefitted from further investment after the initial success of the range. The result was improved quality and durability of finish, added to the basic engineering integrity of the engine and chassis, made for a long-lasting and robust motorcycle.
The range was largely revised in 1997 with the release of the T500 range, followed by a light-weight four-cylinder 600 cc sports TT600. The 600 was a major design departure and initially received a poor press: "unpleasant at low revs due to a lethargic and unpredictable throttle response, with anonymous styling". As sales built, the big fours were phased out of the lineup and parallel twins and triples became the marketing and development focus of Triumph's marketing strategy. Triumph also decided to exploit demand for retro motorcycles with modern engineering. The Triumph Thunderbird 900 exploited the styling cues of the 'old' Triumphs legendary designer, Edward Turner whilst retaining the modern triple engine. The 790 and 865 cc versions of the Triumph Bonneville and Thruxton look and sound original but internally they have modern valves and counterbalance shafts.
For their contemporary range, the triple is Hinckley Triumph's trademark, filling a niche between European and American twins and four-cylinder Japanese machinery. The 2,294 cc (140.0 cu in) triple Rocket III cruiser was introduced in 2004. The first 300 Rocket III models were already sold before they were produced, and there was a long waiting list for Rockets into 2005.
On 21 July 2008, Triumph held a Global Dealer Conference where new models for 2009 were launched, including the official announcement of the parallel twin-cylinder Thunderbird.
Triumph's best selling bike is the 675 cc Street Triple. In 2010 they launched the Triumph Tiger 800 and Tiger 800 XC, dual-sport motorcycles, which uses an 800 cc engine derived from the Street Triple, and is designed to compete directly with the market leading BMW F800GS. In 2012, the Tiger 800 was joined by the shaft-driven Triumph Tiger Explorer.
The 2015–2017 model range comprises:
- Adventure and touring
- Trophy SE ABS
- Tiger 800
- America & Speedmaster
- Rocket III
- Modern Classics
- Bonneville T120
- Street Twin
- Street Scrambler
- Roadsters and supersports
- Daytona 675
- Speed Triple
- Street Triple
Triple Connection and celebrity marketing
In 1995, the Triple Connection clothing range and the accessories range of products were launched. Triumph made a commercial decision to design all their own motorcycle clothing rather than license other producers. In the 21st century, Triumph marketed lines of clothing highlighting their association with celebrities strongly associated with the old Triumph marque such as Marlon Brando, Bob Dylan, James Dean, Elvis Presley and particularly, Steve McQueen, for whom the company named a special edition of their Bonneville motorcycle.
A list of motorcycles produced under the Triumph brand by both the original company, Triumph Engineering Co Ltd, and its later incarnations, and the current Triumph Motorcycles Ltd.
Triumph Engineering Co Ltd
Known as the Meriden, West Midlands, UK era, 1902–1983.
|First model||1902-1904||used Minerva, JAP and Fafnir engines|
|Second Model||3 hp||1905||Triumph used their own engine for the first time, 250 were made|
|Model||474 cc||1908-1909||production up to 3000 in 1909|
|Model Roadster||500 cc||1910-1913||single speed, optional rear hub clutch as the 'free engine' model|
|Model C||550 cc||1913-1914||Three speed Sturmey Archer rear wheel hub|
|Model TT||500 cc||1909-1914||short wheelbase and no pedals. Types, D, F and K|
|Model H||550 cc||1915-1926||Fitted with a three speed Sturmey Archer gearbox|
|Model SD||550 cc||1920-1926||The SD(Spring Drive)SV, three speed Triumph gearbox|
|Model R||500 cc||1921-1926||Designed by Harry Ricardo. OHV with a 4 valve head|
|Model P||500 cc||1925–1926||made down to the price of £42.17.6|
|XO||150 cc ohv||1933|
|2/1 & 2/L1 (Light Weight)||250 cc ohv single||1934-1936|
|6/1||650 cc||1933-1935||Parallel twin. Predates the "Turner Twins". Scrapped when Turner came in, the design later resurfaced, modified, as the BSA A10.|
|2H, 2H, 3S, 3SC, 3SE, 3H, 5H, 6S,||1937-1940|
|Tiger 70||249 cc ohv single||1937-1940|
|Tiger 80||349 cc ohv single||1937-1940|
|Tiger 90||497 cc ohv single||1937-1940|
|5T Speed Twin||498 cc ohv||1937-40,1946–58||parallel twin|
|Tiger 100||498 cc ohv||1938-40,1946–59|
|2HC||250 cc ohv||1938-1939||C stands for coil ignition|
|Triumph Grand Prix 500 cc OHV||500 cc||1947–9||Used an all alloy stationary engine, designed to power military generators during the war.|
|TR5 Trophy||500 cc||1949–1958||Competition bike winner of ISDT Trophy for 4 years|
|Triumph TRW500||500 cc||1950–1964||Side valve military production motorcycle|
|6T Thunderbird||650 cc twin|
|3TA or Triumph Twenty One||350 cc (i.e. 21 cubic inches)||1957–1966||First 350 cc unit construction machine and debut of the distinctive "bath-tub". Alternator electrical system.|
|5TA or Triumph Speed Twin||500 cc||1957–1966||First 500 cc 'unit construction' machine. Alternator electrical system.|
|T90||350 cc||1963–1969||"Tiger 90", sports version of the 3TA (still single carburettor). (Note, there'd been an earlier Tiger 90, a 500 cc in 1937).|
|T100||500 cc||1959||Sports version of the 5T "Speed Twin"|
|T100A||1960–1961||Sports version of the 5TA, first Tiger with 'unit construction', 'bathtub' rear enclosure|
|T100SS||1962-1968?||Sports version of the 5TA|
|T100S Tiger Sports|
|T100R Daytona||500 cc||1966–1974||Road version of the racing twin. Built as an answer to Honda's 444 cc Black Bomber. Tested at 110+mph, topped 150 in race trim.|
|T110 Tiger||650 cc||Sports model capable of 110 mph|
|TR5T Adventurer/Trophy Trail||500 cc||1972–1974||On/off road style|
|TR25W Trophy 250||250 cc||1968-1970||Single-cylinder engine based on the BSA B25 Starfire (not the Tiger Cub).|
|T100C Trophy||500 cc||1966-1972 single carb. Mainly for export to the USA|
|TR6 Trophy||650 cc||1956–1968|
|TR6C Trophy||650 cc||C is the 'Competition' Model. High pipes on left side. Frequently referred to as desert sleds when used for racing in the Western US. Lower overall gear ratios.|
|TR6R Tiger||650 cc||1969-72||R is "Road" Model. Trophy renamed Tiger for the 650cc single carb as distinguished from the twin carb of the Bonneville (TR120) 650cc.||500cc Tiger single carb renamed Trophy.|
|TR7V Tiger||750 cc||thru78||Almost identical to the T140; differentiated by the Tiger having a single (as opposed to twin) carburettor. Other differences being cosmetic. "V" identifies 5 speed gearbox.|
|Tiger Cub||200 cc||1954–1968||Single-cylinder based on the Terrier.|
|T120 Bonneville||650 cc||Descended directly from the Tiger 110. Twin Carburettor.|
|Thruxton Bonneville||Built May 1965||Production racer (52 total machines built)|
|T140 Bonneville||750 cc||1973-1983||Produced at the Meriden factory and after its closure, for a short time in Devon.|
|Tina Scooter (later T 10)||100 cc||1962–1970||Re-designated "T10" in 1965.|
|Tigress Scooter||175 cc 2-stroke / 250 cc 4-stroke||1959–1965|
|T140W TSS||750 cc||8-valve head|
|T140D Bonneville Special||750 cc||Custom style|
|Triumph T140 TSX||Custom style|
|TS8-1||Show prototype anti-vibration 8 valve|
|Bonneville Executive||faired tourer with luggage|
|Triumph TR65 Thunderbird||650 cc||T140 derivative, 76x71.5 giving 649 short stroke engine|
|TR7T Tiger Trail||750c||On/off road style|
|TR65T Tiger Trail||650 cc||On/off road style with TR65 engine|
|T140LE Royal Wedding Bonneville||750 cc||1981||250 of these to commemorate the Prince of Wales' marriage|
|T140J Bonneville Silver Jubilee||750 cc||1977||2500 of these commemorated Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom's Silver Jubilee|
|T140AV, TR7AV, TSSAV||Anti-Vibration police models|
|TR7VS Tiger Electro||Electric start|
|T140ES Bonneville Electro||Electric start|
|TR6 Thunderbird||600 cc||Show prototype custom style|
|Daytona 600||600 cc||Show prototype|
|TSX8||Show prototype 8-valve custom style|
For full detail see BSA Rocket 3/Triumph Trident (for corresponding BSA models see BSA Triples)
|Model||First year||Last year||Notes|
|X75||1973||The first production 'Custom' motorcycle–styled by Craig Vetter|
From 1985 to 1988
- Triumph Bonneville
Triumph Motorcycles Limited
Known as the Hinckley, Leicestershire era, 1990–.
|Daytona 750||748 cc||1990–1992||Triple with short-stroke crank fitted (900 has the long-throw crank). Aimed at Super sports market but more of a sports-tourer. Only circa 240 made. These are now very collectable.|
|Daytona 1000||998 cc||1990–1992||Sports bike using four-cylinder version of the short-stroke 750 Daytona/Trident engine|
|Trophy 900||885 cc||1990–2002||From 1995 it received a completely new (and much larger) fairing, designed by John Mockett, standard fit panniers and a new exhaust system with low slung silencers to allow the panniers to fit.|
|Trophy 1200||1180 cc||1990–2004||Initially 141 bhp sports tourer, using 4-cylinder long-stroke version of modular engine. From 1995 it received a completely new (and much larger) fairing, designed by John Mockett, standard fit panniers and a new exhaust system with low slung silencers to allow the panniers to fit. Engine retuned to 108 bhp with improved torque.|
|Trophy SE||1215 cc||2013-||Full touring motorcycle, sharing its all-new (and shaft-driven) 1215 triple with the (Adventure styled) Tiger Explorer. Initially sold as a "basic" Trophy and an "SE" (the "basic" version was never available in the US), only the SE is currently listed.|
|Trident 750||748 cc||Naked version of short-stroke triple-engined bike.|
|Trident 900||885 cc||Naked version of long-stroke triple-engined bike.|
|Trident Sprint 900||885 cc||Standard Trident, fitted with very effective twin headlamp half fairing.|
|Sprint 900||885 cc||As above but, as model became well known in its own right, Triumph decided to drop the "Trident" part of the name. Facelifted in 1995 to include new (unique to the Sprint, at the time) side panels and tail light.|
|Sprint 900 Sport||885 cc||Sprint with improved suspension, higher pegs and exhausts (all taken from the, then current, speed triple) and lower bars (taken from the early Trophy). Probably the best mix of all parts from the initial modular range of Hinckley Triumphs.|
|Sprint 900 Executive||885 cc||Sprint with panniers, exhausts and footrest hangers taken from the post 1995 Triumph Trophy.|
|Daytona 900||885 cc||1992–1997||A combination of the original 750 Daytona with the long stroke 900 engine and a slightly more a cceptable riding position. Still too heavy and large to be a true sports bike, but a very charismatic and robust high speed, long distance, tourer.|
|Daytona 900 Super III||885 cc||1994–1996||A standard 900 Daytona with a Cosworth modified engine producing claimed 115 bhp, fitted with a few carbon fibre extras. The Daytona on which it was based was never a true sports bike, being too heavy (especially top heavy) and unwieldy to compete with current sports bikes. The Super III was an attempt to shed weight and increase power, but combined with a very high price, only served to underline that this was a step too far for the original modular design. These have become collectible bikes.|
|Daytona 1200||1180 cc||1992–1999||147 bhp 4 cyl Sports Tourer. Though discontinued in '96, it was relaunched as a "Special Edition" in '98. Only 250 individually numbered machines were produced (the number being shown on a specially engraved plaque on the headstock). It featured with 6 pot brakes (from the Super III), black paint with gold lettering and gold wheels. One of the special plaques was damaged in production and, when another one was ordered, it came as "number 251" in error.|
|Thunderbird 900||885 cc||1995–2004||
Triumph's first attempt to revive a classic-styled motorcycle based on its heritage, using the original modular platform. Bike sported 18" front tire and 16" rear, detuned the 885 motor to 70 hp with better lower-end torque.5-speed until engine number 71843, then all fitted with 6-speed.
|Triumph Adventurer 900||885 cc||1996–2000||Thunderbird with wider 19" front tyre, plus bob-tail rear fender similar to cruiser bike. Triumph's first attempt at a cruiser, using the modular platform. All from engine number 71843 are 6 speed.|
|Thunderbird Sport 900||885 cc||1997–2000, 2003–2004||Thunderbird with wider 17" tyres, plus "arguably" uprated engine (the only real visual difference is with the exhaust system), however the suspension and brakes are improved with twin disc set up. All 6-speed and 82 bhp.|
|Daytona T595||955 cc||1997–1999||The first true sports bike from the new Hinckley Triumph. Using an engine only very loosely based on the long stroke triple motor, it was much lighter, more powerful and used a unique alloy perimeter frame allowing the low centre of gravity and dedicated sports bike handling necessary to compete in this market. It also had an alloy single sided swing arm that was very similar to that offered by Ducati in their then current 916. The first production bikes featured a polished alloy frame, but these examples very quickly picked up a reputation for catastrophic weld failure on the top rail leading to the headstock. The frames were soon modified with a much larger weld on the top tube, though they were never supplied polished again, reverting to a silver/grey paint finish.|
|Daytona 955i||955 cc||1999–2006||The T595 was renamed 955 as it was too often thought to be a 600 cc bike! It gradually evolved with a new bodywork and improved engine mapping. It lost the single sided swinging arm at one point, but then reverted to a single sided arm around a year later. Model eventually discontinued and never replaced as factory felt that the high level of investment necessary to stay competitive in the large sports bike market wasn't justified.
Also "CE" (Centennial Edition) version 2002
|Daytona 600||599 cc||2002–2004|
|Daytona 650||646 cc||2005–2006||Longer stroke version of Daytona 600|
|Daytona 675||675 cc||2006 on||All new bike with all new three cylinder engine|
|TT 600||599 cc||2000–2002|
|Scrambler 900||865 cc||2006–||Street–scrambler styled trail bike, based on the 865 cc Bonneville, 270° crank, high level exhaust system. Electronic Fuel Injection from 2008MY(UK) 2009MY(ROW)|
|Thruxton 900||865 cc||2004–||Bonneville based cafe racer|
|Sprint RS||955 cc||1999–2004|
|Sprint ST||955/1050 cc||1999 on||1999–2005 955 cc, 2005 on 1050 cc|
|Sprint GT||1050 cc||2010 on||Liquid-cooled, 12 valve, DOHC, in-line 3-cylinder producing 128 bhp/96 kW @ 9200rpm and torque 108Nm/80 ft.lbs @ 6300rpm. ABS Standard. Available in Pacific Blue, Aluminium Silver and Phantom Black.|
|Legend TT||885 cc||1998–2000|
|Speedmaster||790 cc||2003–2004||Cruiser based on the Bonneville, the engine being at 270° instead of 360°|
|Speedmaster 900||865 cc||2005-||Cruiser based on the Bonneville T100, the engine being at 270° instead of 360°|
|Adventurer||885 cc||1996–2001||Restyled Thunderbird 900|
|Triumph Bonneville America||790/865 cc||2002 on||2002–2006 790 cc, 2007 on 865 cc. 2008 on fuel injected|
|Rocket III||2294 cc||2005||Long distance touring Cruiser|
|Rocket III Classic||2294 cc|
|Rocket III Touring||2294 cc||2008-||Hard luggage standard equipment, less bhp, more torque than standard model|
|Rocket III Roadster||2294 cc||2010-|
|Triumph Bonneville 790||790/865 cc||2001-2007 790 cc, 2007 on 865 cc||After 10 years of producing bikes around a modern engine, Triumph eventually succumbed to the need to build a true modern version of the classic Bonneville. Using a counterbalanced air and oil cooled parallel twin motor, it looked as close to the original '60's version of the unit construction Bonneville as it was possible to within current noise and emission regulations. In 2002 Triumph released a limited edition model to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of Queen Elizabeth's coronation. These collectable bikes were dubbed the "Golden Jubilee" and featured an exclusive paint scheme and badging.|
|Triumph Bonneville Bobber||1200 cc||2017-||The Bonneville Bobber is a new Bonneville model introduced for the 2017 model year. It is a slightly modified version of the same 1200 cc engine introduced in the Bonneville T120 in 2016 which gives it a little less power but more torque.|
|Triumph Bonneville T100||790/865/900 cc||2002 on||2002-2005 790 cc, 2006 on 865 cc, 2008 fuel injection replaced carbs, 2017 900 cc Liquid cooled, 8 valve, SOHC, 270° parallel twin|
|Triumph Bonneville T120||1200 cc||2016-||Brought back for 2016 a all new 1200 cc Liquid cooled, 8 valve, SOHC, 270° parallel twin|
|Speed Triple 750||748 cc||Budget Speed Triple using 750 Trident engine, only in production for a very short time. Using identical components to the 900 version, the only way to tell this model apart is the larger (18") diameter rear wheel, with 6 spokes rather than 3.|
|Speed Triple 900||885 cc||1994–1997||
Triumph's very successful attempt at a streetfighter motorcycle, similar to how owners were "stripping down" modern sport bikes. Essentially a Daytona 900 without a fairing and fitted with a single round headlamp and conventional paired instrument pod. Originally (and pointlessly) sold with just a 5 speed gearbox, but later versions had the same 6 ratios as the 900 Daytona. Wildly successful and included its own racing series. Still top heavy and not a true sports bike, but one of the most charismatic bikes of the decade. Nearly always sold in all black, with orange being rare and yellow extremely rare.
|Speed Triple T509||885 cc||1997–1999||
Replacing the original 900 Speed Triple using, logically, the frame, motor (though originally in 885 cc, rather than 955 cc, guise) and much of the running gear from the new T595 sports bike. Again, there was no fairing, although this time it had twin headlamps in chrome pods to follow the "Street fighter" line, rather than the earlier "cafe racer" appearance. Much lighter and easier to handle than the earlier 900 Speed Triple it was equally successful, though the appearance of the new engine was probably better suited to being hidden behind a fairing.
|Speed Triple 955i||955 cc||1999–2005|
|Speed Triple 1050||1050 cc||2005 on|
|Street Triple 675||675 cc||2008 on||Scaled down Speed Triple, based on Daytona 675 Chassis|
|Speed Four||599 cc||2002-2005||Stripped down TT600 with reworked engine|
|Tiger 900||885 cc||1993–1998||Dual sport with desert racer styling|
|Tiger||885 cc||1999–2001||Revamped model with fuel-injected motor based on T509 Speed Triple|
|Tiger 955i||955 cc||2001–2006||Increased displacement to 955cc, gradual changes made until end of production in 2006|
|Tiger 1050||1050 cc||2007 on|
|Tiger 800||800 cc||2011 on||All-new smaller Tiger with an engine based in part on the existing 675cc motor used in the Daytona 675 and Street Triple; also equipped with cast wheels, 19" front and 17" rear|
|Tiger 800 XC||800 cc||2011 on||Released simultaneously with the more road-oriented Tiger 800, the XC model has uprated suspension and spoked wheels in 21" front and 17" rear sizes for improved offroad performance|
|Triumph Thunderbird||1,600 and 1,700 cc||2009||85 bhp(1600) 97 bhp (1700) bhp Parallel Twin, belt-drive cruiser|