Daniels 8 limo (1919)
|Founded||1915 in Reading, Pennsylvania, United States of America|
|Founder||George E. Daniels and Neff E. Parish|
United States of America
Daniels Motor Company was a pioneer brass era American automobile company, founded in 1915 by George E.
Daniels (formerly of GM AND Buick) with Neff E ParishGeorge Daniels was a known lawyer, engineer, and mechanic He was considered the best motorcar designer in the United States Neff Parish had his own automobile parts and framing manufacturing company Neff was the creator of the time's highest-grade heat-treated alloy steel frames, respected in the steel industry Daniels Motor Company produced 1,500 high quality automobiles between 1916-1924, branding themselves as “the distinguished car with just a little more power than you will ever need”, and “The aristocrat of American cars”
No stock models were created. Daniels cars were built to be permanent personal pieces of art. Each car fabricated was crafted for the individual buyer. With custom coachwork, the Daniels was a bespoke car, built to order, offering a proprietary narrow-angle V8 as stand V8 as standard equipment, for a price (in 1922) of US$7,450. By contrast, the 1913 Lozier Big Six limousines and landaulettes were US$6,500, tourers and roadsters US$5,000; the Lozier Light Six Metropolitan tourer and runabout started at US$3,250; Americans ran from US$525 down to US$4250; the Enger 40 was US$2000, the FAL US$1750, the Oakland 40 US$1600, and both the Cole 30 US$1500, and Colt Runabout were US$1500. Below that, presumably, a Daniels customer would not have looked.
In 1916, Daniels Motor Company produced 300 Model A Daniels Eight Cylinder Speedsters from its Reading, Pennsylvania manufacturing plant. As Daniels did all of its own production, the company never had to refuse buyers due to high demand unlike competitors. In 1917, the three passenger Coupe Model B was produced. Prices ranged from $3,100 to $5,200. In 1919, between one and two hundred Cloverleaf Coupe model Cs were produced. This model displayed the first Daniels built engine. The engine, designed by the same Italian engineer who created the best four cylinder engines in Europe proved inadequate and had to be reconfigured.
In 1920, Daniels announced it would be opening a new plant in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and premiered the V8 engine. Production was expected to be 1,500 automobiles annually at the new facility. Seven different body styles were available with V8 engines, with designs ranging from the seven-passenger touring cars priced $4,750 to the Daniels limousine at $6,250. In 1921, prices increased and existing models experienced moderate design changes. In 1922, the Daniels Motor Company opened a new office in Brooklyn, New York intended to serve Brooklyn and Long Island residents and announced the plan to double output of all Daniels’ plants within two months’ time. This office was the first Daniels to offer a service station to all Daniels Motor Company buyers with Daniels Motor Company specific tools and equipment. George Daniels cited providing service stations as the most important facet of his business structure, as it was a major driver of sales. In its prime, Daniels Motor Company had between 15 and 20 agents across the US. That same year, Daniels released a statement explaining the company would be cutting prices for the first time. The president warned buyers no further reductions were expected and prices are to rise again within 90 days. At the same time, a majority of the company's preferred stock was offered on the New York Stock Exchange.
In 1923, the company underwent “unusual” procedures to take back its declaration of dividends. A series of internal business problems lead to the initial breakdown of the company. A federal judge rejected an offer of $84,271 made for assets of Daniels Motor Company at public auction for the company's Reading plant. The auction was held by the company's receivers of equity under adherence of the US court system. The courts told receivers they could apply later for a re-sale after they have considered two proposals made in court. First, the president asked for two weeks to develop a reorganization plan. Second, one bidder offered to buy the land for $110,000. The second option fell through when the court found the proposal inadequate. In 1924, as a last ditch effort to save the business, the company announced its line of products will begin to be sold at higher prices in order to make a profit. Additionally, it was announced the moving of its company headquarters from Reading to Philadelphia. Later in 1924, anyone holding claims against the “defunct” Daniels Motor Company were notified to present their claims to the Philadelphia court district who has appointed a special master dedicated to passing the final accounts of the corporation.
In a statement from the company:
With a desire to produce the best material available and to obtain products at the lowest prices, a heavy cash investment was made in raw materials. These expenditures have placed the company in the position of not having sufficient cash to conduct its business along the best and most economical lines. With the object of conserving assets, protecting the creditors, serving the public, and to insure a continuation of the company as soon as the present financial situation is straightened out, the company is asking for a temporary receiver in equity.
The corporation was sold by the order of the district court. One hundred people attended the public auction and six bids were made. George Billman, a real estate dealer bought the Reading plant property. The property was estimated to be worth $300,000. George Nagle purchased the name, trademarks, and drawings for $1,900. Levene Motor Company of Philadelphia acquired the assets of Daniels Motor Company. The company paid $90,000, $50,000 subject to mortgage. The company planned to invest $20,000 in improvements to convert the plan to a warehouse and manufacturing facility for their own purposes.
In 1953, a 42-year-old Daniels 1921 model D car was up for auction in California. The original cost was $6,500. It was believed to be the last existing 1921 Daniels Model D in existence, and one of five remaining Daniels cars in the world.
Today George E. Daniels (b.1877-d.1954) is most often remembered as the very first president of General Motors albeit he served in that position for a single month. He later served as vice-president and general manager of Oakland, later serving in a similar post with Locomobile. His main contribution to automobile history was the self-named Daniels Eight, 'The Distinguished Car, with just a little more power than you'll ever need.', an early luxury car manufactured in Reading, Pennsylvania. The car was known for its V-8 engine and custom bodywork, which was initially supplied by the Keystone Vehicle Co., a firm that was eventually taken over by the Daniels Motor Co. Their most famous model was the Daniels Eight Submarine Speedster, of which 100 examples were constructed between 1920 and 1922.
George Emory Daniels was born on April 17, 1875 in Franklin, Norfolk County, Massachusetts to Maney M. (b.1835) & Mary E.(Kingston b.1843) Daniels. His Siblings included Anna M.(b.1861) ; Oliver S (b.1860); Walter E.(b.1863); Ella B.(b.1870); and James T. (b.1878) Daniels. The 1900 US Census lists George E. Daniels, b. April 1875 in Franklin, Norfolk County, Mass. ‘At College’.
He received his A.B. from Medford, Massachusetts' Tufts College in 1898 after which he enrolled in the Harvard Law School, graduating in 1901 at which time he was successfully admitted to the Massachusetts Bar. A 1901 Tufts alumni publication lists him as a student at Harvard Law School, his home address as Box 790, Franklin, Mass.
He pursued a legal career for a number of years, working for a time at the Liberty Mortgage Co. in Manhattan. A 1905 Tufts alumni publication lists his occupation as lawyer, home address as 499 Fifth Ave., business address, 26 Liberty St. New York, New York. The Audit Co.’s 1905 Directory of Directors in the City of New York lists him as follows:
“George E. Daniels, 26 Liberty Street, New York, New York; Liberty Mortgage Co., Secretary and Director.”
On February 20, 1905 Daniels married Miss Teresa Holmes, daughter of the late John Holmes of NYC, at the Grace Church Chantry in Manhattan.
Daniels was an enthusiastic automobilist and soon after William C. Durant took control of the Buick Motor Car Co., he left the bar to head the Buick Motor Car Co.'s distribution in eastern Pennsylvania (Philadelphia territory). Billy Durant, Buick's owner at the time, took a liking to the well-educated and physically imposing (6' 4") Daniels and the two men remained lifelong friends.
In 1908 Daniels helped Durant and his attorneys prepare the documents that resulted in the formation of the General Motors Company on September 22, 1908, serving as its very first President, albeit for a single month (he resigned on October 20, 1908). Days later (November 1, 1908) Durant purchased control of the Cartercar Company and installed Daniels as general manager. Cartercar was a Pontiac, Michigan-based manufacturer of friction-drive automobiles that ultimately faded from the scene when multi-gear transmissions made its drive system obsolete.
In January 1909, General Motors board of directors authorized a purchase of a half-interest in the Oakland Motor Car Co. and in November of 1910 Daniels succeeded Lee Dunlap as general manager of Oakland, the November 3, 1910 issue of The Motor World reporting:
“George E. Daniels, for the last two years manager of the Buick Motor Co.'s Philadelphia branch, has been appointed general manager of the Oakland Motor Car Co., of Pontiac, Mich., which, like the Buick company, is a part of the General Motors' organization. Phillip S. Russell, of Detroit, succeeds to the vacancy in Philadelphia caused by Daniel's transfer."
The August 13, 1912 issue of the New York Times announced Daniels' marriage to Mrs. Charles H. Hart (Marianne L. Phillips), a former 'artist's model':
“G.E. DANIELS WEDS DIVORCEE; Married to Mrs. C.H. Hart, Former Wife of Authority on Portraiture.
“The marriage is announced of George E. Daniels, for several years a practicing lawyer in this city, to Mrs. Charles H. Hart, the ceremony having been performed in Philadelphia on Aug. 2.
“Mrs. Hart was the divorced wife of the well-known authority on historical portraiture, Charles Henry Hart of Philadelphia. Previous to her marriage to Mr. Hart in 1905 she was an artist’s model, and at the time of their marriage she was 17 years old and he was past 60. They were divorced last March, Mrs. Hart obtaining custody of their four-year-old son.
“Mr. Daniel’s first wife was Miss Teresa Holmes, daughter of the late John Holmes of this city, and their marriage took place on Feb. 20, 1905 in Grace Church Chantry.”
The picture of Daniels piloting a new Oakland, was published in the October 25, 1912 issue of the Automobile Journal with the following caption:
“NEW SIX CYLINDER OAKLAND
“An accompanying illustration presents the latest addition to the Oakland line produced by the Oakland Motor Car Company, Pontiac, Mich., a six cylinder 60 horsepower model, which appears to be destined to enjoy wide favor during the coming season. The company is not yet ready to announce the detailed specifications but it is understood that they will combine a number of interesting features including a four speed transmission etc.
“In the picture, George E. Daniels, vice president and general manager of the Oakland company, is at the wheel. In the tonneau are: President Thomas Neal of the General Motors Company on the left and Tracy Lyons, director of production for the General Motors Company.”
Although Daniels possessed no mechanical training, he had an excellent eye for design, and was credited with helping to design the Chevrolet body by Oakland's advertising manager, Jacob H. Newmark, who in an interview with Daniel's historian Lauren Suter stated:
"The former lawyer whipped a new body into shape which excited the admiration of the New York crowds... Durant was so pleased with the result that he bought space in The New York Times to tell the industry that Daniels was responsible for the new Chevrolet body."
Under Daniels, two new models were added to the Oakland lineup in 1913: a fast "four" with a self-starter and the company's first 6-cyl. model. In a press release that was distributed by Oakland during the seond week of May, 1913, Daniels stated:
“Beauty And Comfort Needed, Says Daniels
“These Are the First Things the Automobile Buyer Demands, Declares Oakland Manager
“A group of motor car manufacturing executives were discussing the points in a motor car which appeal most to the buyer.
“It was finally put up to George E. Daniels of the Oakland Motor company for an opinion as to what essentials come first in the minds of automobile purchasers.
“‘Beauty and comfort’ promptly declared Mr. Daniels. Others demurred at this.
“‘I’m right,’ said Mr. Daniels. ‘Of course power and reliability are absolutely essential, but we all know that all ‘good’ cars are powerful and reliable. And our reports from our dealers indicate that the success of the Oakland line in strong competition is due to the beauty of our cars and the absolute comfort they give in the city and on the road.
“‘Why, you would be surprised if you knew the number of people who, convinced that Oakland construction is O.K., have acknowledged that the final straw was the V shaped radiators, the single step and convenient arrangement of the controls, as well as the riding comfort under all conditions.’”
Another Daniels 'interview' was published in the Automotive section of the January 8, 1914 New York Herald:
“Streamline Car Body Is Defined
“George E. Daniels Tells How Designers Followed Ideas of Ship Builders
“George E. Daniels, vice-president of the Oakland Motor Car Company, comes forward with a definition of the term ‘streamline,’ and, inasmuch as this style of body is being brought out by a number of manufacturers, the explanation will not only be of interest to prospective purchasers but to automobile owners in general.
“Mr. Daniels says: - ‘The term “streamline” was originally used in hydraulics by ship builders and designers of turbines, and signified the path of least resistance which is followed by a water particle when it is forced or deflected by an object.’
“‘A streamline automobile body is so shaped as to cause the least resistance of the air when a car travels at high speed.’
“‘You will notice that there is an absence of angles and that one sloping line is formed from the curved ‘V’ shaped radiator to the cowl dash. The sides of the hood forming to the body are joined the same way – that is, smoothly.”
Daniels remained with Oakland until mid-1914 when he was replaced by Charles W. Nash, the May 14, 1914 issue of The Automobile reporting:
“Newmark of Oakland M.C. Co. Resigns
“Following the resignation of George E. Daniels, vice president and general manager of the Oakland M.C. Co., Pontiac, Mich., comes the announcement that J.H. Newmark, advertising manager of the company, has followed his chief and has also resigned.”
Two months later the July 30, 1914 issue of Motor Age announced that Daniels was going to manufacture his own automobile:
“Daniels to Make Light Car? — It is reported that a new concern to manufacture a light car is now being formed at Detroit by George E.Daniels, formerly vice-president and general manager of the Oakland Motor Car Co., Pontiac, Mich.; Howard Bauer, former assistant sales manager of this company, and J. H. Newmark, former advertising manager of the same concern.”
Daniels originally planned on building the car in Pontiac, lining up a group oflocal investores and former Oakland executives to manage the firm. Another article in the same issue (July 30, 1914) of Motor Age provided additional details:
“DANIELS FORMING NEW COMPANY
“Pontiac, Mich., July 27 — Several men formerly connected with the Oakland Motor Car Co. now are organizing a new company which is to have a capital of not less than $300,000 and which is to build a popular-priced light car which it is said will cost between $800 and $900. The promoters are former Vice-President George E. Daniels, former Assistant Sales Manager Howard Bauer; J. H. Newmark, former advertising manager; W. R. Williams and L. Eccleston, well known in the industry.
“There was a meeting of citizens of Pontiac under the presidency of President J. L. Marcero, of the commercial association, last Friday, at which not only resolutions were passed welcoming the idea of these men starting a new concern, but tendering them as a token of appreciation and inducement to locate in their home city a sum of $7,500 towards a site and buildings under such terms as may be mutually satisfactory.
“Before the meeting was half over $1,600 had been subscribed, while on the next day, Saturday, nearly all the balance had been pledged. Mr. Daniels now is in Now York and only upon his return will the final decisions be made, although in local banks it is said that the new concern surely will locate here. There is one site which the citizens have specially in view of trying to secure because it has already a factory building and could give employment to about 200 men to start with.”
Plans for the yet-unnamed light car were put on a temporary haitus as the needed $300,000 in capitalization had yet to materialize. Daniels set about finding well-heeled investors, and approximately one year later (June 25, 1915) he incorporated the Daniels Motor Car Company in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Its incorporators included Daniels and Neff E. Parish, vice-president of the Parish Mfg. Co., a manufacturer of steel automobile frames and chrome-nickel-steel specialties.
Neff E. Parish was born in April 15, 1863 in Atlanta, Georgia to George and Lottie M. (Porter) Parish. I could not locate any records of his father being alive after the end of the Civil War, and I assume he was one of the numerous George Parish’s killed in the conflict. The 1870 US Census lists Lottie M. Parish (b. Oct. 1837 in Ohio) and Neffie Parish (b. 1863) as citizens of Bath, Summit County, Ohio living on the farm of Seymour Ganyard (b.1801 in NY).
His mother remarried sometime prior to the 1880 US Census which list Neff and his mother on the farm of his stepfather, Lewis T. Speed, a wagon maker located in Granger, Medina County, Ohio. Neff learned the trade of blacksmith from his stepfather and by the early 1890s had relocated to Clevleand, which was located 30 miles to the north of Granger where he went to work in one of that city’s numerous metal fabrication shops.
In 1894 Parish joined F.C. Bosworth and Charles H. Bingham in the establishment of Paris & Bingham Co. a firm organized to manufacture watch cases, motorman's seats and other stamped steel products,
The formation of the firm corresponded with his February 21, 1894 marriage to Rose C. Shondel (b. Dec.1867). To the blessed union was born a son, Potter Palmer (b. June 3, 1895 in Ohio) Parish.
The firm’s listing in the 1895 Cleveland, Ohio directory follows:
“Parish & Bingham Co., The, tool mnfrs.; 80 Seneca; N.E. Parish, pres.; F.C. Bosworth, sec.; C.H. Bingham, treas.”
Parish & Bingham expanded into the manufacture of trolley wheels, bicycle parts (frames, wheels, sprockets and hubs), and frame rails for early automobiles. The latter product became so popular, they moved to larger quarters at the corner of Madison Avenue and West 106th Street – just across the street from Winton, the nation’s first manufacturer of motor cars.
He resigned from that firm in August, 1904 to go into business for himself, the August 13, 1904 edition of The Automobile reporting:
"Neff E. Parish, president of the Parish & Bingham Company, of Cleveland, has resigned his position to go into other business."
After leaving the firm bearing his name Parish relocated to Reading, Pennsylvania where he and John E. Sullivan, a former Carpenter Steel Co. executive, founded the Parish Mfg. Co. to supply automobile frames to regional automobile manufacturers. The firm started business with one 1,600-ton press and two 400-ton hydraulic presses, and their first customer was Charles E. Duryea, who had relocated to Reading in 1901, establishing the Duryea Power Company "for the manufacture of iron, steel, bath, any metal or wood or both, including automobiles, motors, propellers, and part of either."
Parish’s business increased as America adopted the automobile and by 1910 the firm had introduced a line of heavy-duty truck frames that soon found favor with regional truck manufacturers. The firm’s listing in the 1906 Reading Directory follows:
“Parish Mfg. Co., R.E. Jennings, president, W.B. Kunhardt, treasurer; E.J. Jennings, secretary; Neff E. Parish, gen. manager; automobile frames & etc., Chestnut cor.7th.”
During the next few years automobile hoods and fenders were added to the firm’s product line, its 1914 Reading Directory listing mentions stampings in addition to frames:
“Parish Manufacturing Corporation, R.E. Jennings, president, Neff E. Parish, vice-president & general manager; J.E. Sullivan, vice-president; W.B. Kunhardt, treasurer; E.J. Jennings, secretary; pressed steel automobile frames & stampings, Chestnut cor.7th.”
As Parish was providing the bulk of the finances he proposed utilizing a plant located in Reading, just a couple of blocks away from the Parish Works which were located in a former railroad machine shop at the northwest corner of Chestnut and Seventh Streets.
Manufacturing of the prototype Daniels automobile commenced in the Mount Penn Stove Works on Third Street, Reading, directly across from the Keystone Vehicle Works plant. Charles Luft, a well-known consulting engineer based in Philadelphia was brought in to design the prototype which was completed during the fall of 1915. Equipped with a 33.8 h.p. Herchell-Spillman V-8 engine, Parish Mfg. frame, and Keystone Vehicle coachwork the Model A Daniels was announced to the trade in the September 25, 1915 issue of Automobile Topics:
“Daniels Eight Price $2,350
“A price of $2,350 has been set on the new Daniels Eight, the car that is to be built by the Daniels Motor Car Co., which is headed by Geo. E. Daniels, formerly president of the Oakland Motor Co. The car, which is to be made in Reading. Pa., will be practically a made-to-order one, special attention being given to the desires of the customer as to the finish and equipment of the body, which will be replete with luxurious fittings.
“The motor is of the V-type. 3 1/2 x 5 inches, with L-head cylinders, and is rated at 33.8 horsepower. Cylinders are cast in two blocks, with the intake manifold integral. A single camshaft will actuate the 16 valves. The cylinder blocks are staggered, thus permitting the connecting rod big end bearings to be placed side by side on the crankshaft throws. Electrical equipment for ignition, starting and lighting is Westinghouse, and the carbureter is a Zenith.
“There is a dry disc clutch and a Brown-Lipe-Chapin three-speed gearset, integral with the motor. Drive is taken through the springs. The rear axle is three-quarters floating. Springs are semi-elliptic, undershmg. at the rear.
“This characteristic is particularly marked in the case of the new limousine, which is so low that a man of ordinary build, standing on the curb beside the car, is able to look over the roof. Combined with the low suspension and compact design is an extreme width of body that affords the most roomy of accommodations, while wide doors impart an air of luxuriousness to the vehicle and ensure easy entrance. The finish and equipment is as distinctive as is the general design, while the qualities of the chassis and the suspension render both limousine and town models well adapted for touring, as well as city work. Deliveries have been promised for next month.”
One month later, the October 23, 1915 issue of Automobile Topics provided many more details:
“DANIELS EIGHT CAR HAS CUSTOM STYLE
“Machine Is Now Completely Ready for Market—Comfort and Elegance Are Present in Marked Degree—Test Trip Highly Satisfactory.
“Although it is but four months since the formal announcement of its organization, the Daniels Motor Car Co., of Reading, Pa., is practically ready with its new Daniels Eight, which is a distinctively finished seven-passenger vehicle of the better class, priced at $2,350. Having just completed an inspection trip of more than a thousand miles through New England, George E. Daniels, head of the enterprise, who won his spurs as vice-president and general manager of the Oakland Motor Car Co., pronounces the car highly satisfactory, and particularly commends its ability for bursts of speed and the general performance qualities that enable it to be driven at fair weather schedules under foul weather conditions, such as he experienced during several days of the trip.
“As distinguished from many cars now being offered to the American purchaser, the Daniels Eight conveys an impression of comfort and even elegance that is usually attributed to the custom-finished motor. Contributing factors to this impression are the mahogany garnish rail surrounding the entire exposed edge of the coachwork, the mahogany paneling on the back of the front seat, which conceals the extra folding seats when out of service; the mahogany-framed windshield; a step-light operated by the opening of the right-hand door, and numerous other niceties of detail. The body is a modernized version of the streamline form, harmonious in appearance, with the sloping hood and rounded radiator. The inward roll of the cowl is carried back along the front door and reappears in the second cowl strip at the back of the front seat, affording the impression of good protection for the occupants that is carried out in the high sides and relatively low-placed cushions. The upholstery is deep, well-sprung and covered with long-grain, hand-buffed leather. Flat mudguards, or nearly so, conforming closely to the wheel contour, help to distinguish the product from those of lower price, whose more elaborate metal shapes indicate the repetition work of the drawing-press.
“The standard top, a one-man design of conventional pattern, is effective in appearance, and promises to meet the requirements of the average purchaser. For those desiring a more distinctive and, in a sense, formal effect, however, the Victoria top, such as is carried by Daniels's own car, here illustrated, is destined to prove decidedly attractive. While ostensibly protecting only the rear portion of the car, a frameless extension of the top is available, whereby a complete enclosure of the entire body may be quickly and easily effected.
“In the design of the motor the twin-block staggered arrangement of cylinders has been selected as having the advantage of avoiding the forked type of connecting-rod construction. The cylinder dimensions are 3 1/4 x 5 inches, affording a nominal rating of 33.8 horsepower. The integrally-cast intake manifold, single camshaft with 16 integral cams—one for each valve—and semi-steel flywheel with machine-steel starting gear bolted in place, are among its special features. Duplex centrifugal pumps are used for water circulation, while a gear oil pump feeds the pressure lubricating system, the operation of which is governed by a safety-valve controlling a bypass. Drilled holes in the crankshaft conduct the oil to the main bearings and the connecting-rod big ends, while pipes attached to the rods lead a supply to the upper rod and piston pin bearings. The carbureter is a 1 1/4-inch Zenith duplex, fitted with dash regulating means for the hot-air intake.
“Westinghouse 6-volt equipment is used throughout for the electrical system. The generator is located at the front of the engine and driven by a cross-shaft and spiral gears. Constant voltage is maintained by an automatic regulator, practically independent of engine speed, while it also automatically controls the charging rate of the Willard 100-ampere-hour battery, in accordance with the needs of that accumulator, providing a "tapering charge" as the battery nears its fully-charged condition. The ignition distributor, which is built in conjunction with the generator, is so devised that the period of contact is practically the same at all speeds. The starting motor is geared direct to the flywheel by means of the Bendix type of automatic pinion, whereby all mechanical clutch or gear-shifting arrangements are obviated and the control of the system is reduced to the operation of a simple push-button.
“A multiple-disc dry-plate clutch of large diameter is used, in connection with which is a ball-bearing clutch release that is of particularly easy operation. The three-speed gearset is of Brown-Lipe-Chapin make, mounted as a unit with the engine, and selectively actuated by a center control lever. Final drive is through a Spicer double-universal shaft, that is guaranteed to be free from whipping at the highest speeds, and spiral-bevel gears on the three-quarter-floating rear axle. The tractive effect is transmitted through the under-slung semi-elliptic rear springs, while torsion stresses are absorbed by a separate torque arm. Taper roller bearings are used for the rear axle equipment, which carries 15inch brakes of the familiar inside and outside acting pattern.
“Although presenting a substantial and even massive appearance, and looking every inch of its 127-inch wheelbase, the weight of the car complete is under 3,600 pounds. It carries 34 x 4 1/4-inch tires on Firestone demountable rims, and wood wheels. That it has the newly-accepted "standard" tread of 56 inches almost goes without saying. Despite its large proportions, however, it is so laid out that it can be turned comfortably in a 36-foot street. This advantage is, of course, due to the ample turning angle of the front wheels, that is rendered possible by the tapering of the frame to narrow width in front, and which, besides the advantage of a great range of steering lock, conveys not unappreciable benefits, it is thought, in the way of easier riding tendencies.”
The Model A was available as a 2-passenger roadster or speedster, 4-passenger touring, 7-passenger limousine or landaulet.
The January 6, 1917 edition of Automobile Topics describes the firm's exhibit at the recent New York Auto Salon:
“Daniels Eight is Smart
“That the Daniels Motor Car Co., Reading, Pa., is an exceedingly fortunate one is unmistakably revealed at the Salon, for the bodies in which it is being shown are taking second place to none. When to this statement is added the fact that the bodies are made by the Keystone Vehicle Co., of Reading, and that G.E. Daniels himself is the managing director of this company and designer of the bodies, the exact way in which the company is fortunate is seen. It is one of the few American makers that does not have to go far outside in order to provide special bodies, and by that token, is one of the few in the world, practically all European chassis and body makers are quite distinct. The Daniels and Keystone companies, however, are practically one, and face each other across a Reading street.
“Among the Daniels cars to be seen is a five-passenger touring car, which is unique among open cars in having cloth upholstery in the rear seats, while leather is used in the front. A fabric somewhat resembling broadcloth and the felty material that covers billiard tables is used. There is a victoria top, and a window, instead of the more usual windshield, disappears into the partition back of the driver's seat.
“A striking enclosed car is the Suburban, a seven-passenger machine listed at $4,250, completely enclosed, and having a particularly graceful backward slant to the glass front. It is of the convertible type, and may be opened almost entirely for fairweather riding. There also is a cloverleaf Daniels in white, a green and black cab with collapsible top, a $4.500 landau brougham, sometimes called a 'Salamanca.' This is cream with black striping, and is a strikingly handsome car.”
Early advertisements for the 1917 Model A and 1918 Model B appeared in Vanity Fair and Country Life Magazine, both Models being equipped with a 127-in. wheelbase and Herschell-Spillman V-8s. The Model B's were priced from $3,100 to $5,200 depending on the coachwork which included: Roadster, Touring Car, Cabriolet, Sedan, Brougham, Limousine and Berline. The January 3, 1918 issue of Motor Age announced an additional body for the 1918 model year:
“Daniels Eight, Daniels Motor Car Co., Reading, Pa.
“A FIVE PASSENGER, close-coupled, collapsible sedan is a new body of universal design which has been added to the Daniels line for the coming season. The one chassis remains practically the same as last year’s. Some fine custom-built bodies were produced last season to meet the demand for special bodies, and this policy will be continued this year.”
To keep the supply of those custom bodies coming, Daniels and Parish purchased a controlling interest in the Keystone Vehicle Company, the firm's main body builder, whose factory was located directly across the street from the Daniels' Works.
Originally fitted with a Hershell-Spillman V-8, from 1919 on Daniels' engines were supplied by the Light Mfg. Co. of Pottstown, Pennsylvania - the 1919 'Model C' being the first Daniels to be equipped with the new engine. The first iteration of the new 'Daniels' powerplant proved unreliable and very few (100-200) 1919 Daniels were delivered.
Both Keystone Vehicle and Parish Manufacturing supplied parts and material to the US Goverment for use in the First World War, the May 23, 1918 issue of The Automobile reporting on a Keystone contract with the Ordnance Dept.:
“Contracts Awarded by Ordnance Department
“WASHINGTON, May 17—Following is a list of contracts and purchase orders included in the awards placed by the Ordnance Department on May 11, 1918:
“Keystone Vehicle Co., Reading. Pa.; tops for drivers' seats, trucks.”
Parish supplied the frames used in the construction of WWI's Liberty Truck. Designed by the SAE and US Quartermaster Corps., 9500 of the 3-5 ton trucks were constructed by 15 firms located across the country. The April 3, 1919 edition of Iron Age reported:
“The Parish Mfg. Co., Reading, Pa., manufacturer of automobile frames, has completed a contract covering 10,000 frames for automobile trucks of army type for the Four Wheel Drive Automobile Co., Cllntonville, Wis.”
William Bradford Williams’ “Munitions Manufacture in the Philadelphia Ordnance District”, presented a complete list of items manufactured by Keystone for the War effort:
“KEYSTONE VEHICLE CO., E.T. Preston president (now Daniels Motor Co.)
“The Keystone Vehicle Co. (later Daniels Motor Co.), of Reading, Pa., during the World War were designers of the special drivers' tops for the Nash Quad. They supplied 500 for overseas shipment for the Engineering Division of the Army, and received orders for 1,200 from the Ordnance Department. “The Keystone Vehicle Co. also furnished other manufacturers with samples, as models from which to build their tops.
“Another contract was received by them for 500 tops from the Engineering Division for overseas shipment.
“In addition to the above they designed and built sample tops for the Dodge Repair Truck, the five and ten-ton tractors and the artillery.
“Also seventy-five Class B bodies on an order for 500, which order was cancelled by reason of the Armistice. The company had other orders, as sub-contractors, for 250 bodies for limbers and caissons.
“As many as 350 employees worked, at one time, on war production.
“The regular line of the Keystone Vehicle Co. (now the Daniels Motor Co.) is high grade pleasure automobile bodies.
“The War Executive Personnel follows: Geo. E. Daniels, President and General Manager; W. S. Eaton, Superintendent (later succeeded by Sydney Atterby); F. W. Sheadle, Purchasing Agent; A. W. Zechman, Shipper.”
Post war records indicate Keystone was awarded $11,250 in truck body contracts and after arbitration was awarded an additional $8,345.45 in compensation for the completed goods. Report to Congress of claims adjusted under act of Congress approval Mar. 2, 1919, entitled “An act to provide relief in eases of contracts connected with the prosecution of the war, and for other purposes”.
At the end of the War Charles A. Dana’s Spicer Mfg. Co. purchased a controlling interest in Parish Mfg. Co., after which it became known as Parish Pressed Steel Co., the news being announced in the October 9, 1919 issue of the Syracuse Herald:
“The Spicer Manufacturing company has bought the Parish Manufacturing company of Reading, Pa., and Detroit, Mich., maker of frames for automobiles and the Sheldon Axle & Spring company of Wilkes-Barre, Pa., maker of axles, etc. The Spicer company is one of the largest producers of universal joints in the country. The authorized capital of the new financing includes $2,000,000 in 8 per cent preferred, $5,000,000 in common, and $3,000,000 in and one and five-year 6 per cent notes. Merrill, Lynch and Cassatt & Company have bought the note issue.”
A revised engine premiered on the 1920 Daniels 'Model D' which featured increased horspeower and much better reliability. Daniels later stated that the new engine had been tested for sixteen months and was now better than any other engine he had ever seen. The 'Model D' debuted at the 1920 New York Auto Salon, which was covered in the November 17, 1919 edition of The Automobile (Automotive Industries):
“Ten American and Six Foreign Cars At Salon
“Ten makes of American cars to six of foreign construction are being exhibited at the Automobile Salon in the Grand Ballroom of the Hotel Commodore…
“Among the accessories shown is the Michelin disk wheel, the American rights for which have been secured by the Budd Wheel Corporation. Wheels of this type are shown both in the stand of A. Faure who exhibits a French tire and on that of the Daniels Motor Car Co., fitted to a Daniels 8. While the Michelin disk wheels manufactured in France are all provided with clinch rims, in this country the wheels will be made with straight side detachable rims. The single steel disk is flanged to form a drum of great strength, reinforcing the rim at every point. The demountable wheel is locked to the hub by 4 or 6 self -locking nuts. The locking studs pass through flanged holes in the disk, and the flanges are of such shape that they do not bear up against the radial flange on the hub, to which the disk is bolted, thus giving a spring washer effect. These wheels are of the demountable type.
“The cars at the Salon were Cunningham, Daniels, Delage, Dupont, Lancia, Locomobile, Meteor, Singer, Porter, Renault, Revere, Rolls-Royce and Sunbeam. Body builders exhibiting were Barker, London; Brewster, Brooks-Ostruk, Fleetwood and Rubay. Equipment dealers showing were Dunlop, Faure, S. Smith & Sons, the Laidlaw Co., Westinghouse, Klaxon and Reese.”
Parish's listing in the 1920 Reading directory follows:
“Parish Manufacturing Corporation, C.A. Dana, president, Neff E. Parish, vice-president; J.A. Archer, secretary-treasurer; pressed steel automobile frames & stampings, Chestnut cor.7th.
"Neff E. Parish (Rose), vice-president Parish Manufacturing Corporation; v-pres Daniels Motor Car Co. Inc."
The Daniels 'Model D' was offered with a choice of seven body styles at two price points. The 7-passenger touring, 4-passenger touring, 2-passenger roadster and 3-passenger coupe listed for $3,750, while the 5-passenger 4-door sedan; 7-passenger suburban and 7-passenger limousine were priced substantially higher at $6,250.
A complete reorganization of the Daniels operations was announced in the May 13, 1920 issue of The Automobile (Automotive Industries):
“Daniels Heads New Motors Organization
“PHILADELPHIA, May 10 — The Daniels Motor Co. has taken over the Daniels Motor Car Co. and the Keystone Vehicle Co. George E. Daniels, president of the Daniels Motor Car Co., is president of the Daniels Motor Co. Neff E. Parish, vice-president of the Parish Manufacturing Corp., is vice-president of the new concern. Warren Davis is secretary and treasurer. Daniels formerly was with the General Motors Co. and vice-president and general manager of the Oakland Motor Car Co.
“The new company will increase the production of the Daniels car to 1500 next year. Plans have been prepared for a model plant and office building at Huntingdon Park Avenue, this city. Work already has been started for an addition to the Keystone vehicle body works in Reading, Pa. The entire output of the company for 1921 has been contracted for. The new Reading building will be 62 x 116 ft. and cost $40,000.”
Plans for the Philadelphia plant were soon abandoned and production of the Daniels automobile was consolidated in the former Keystone Vehicle Company plant across the street. The August 14, 1920 issue of the American Contractors reported that contracts for a $10,000 addition to the Keystone Works hade been awarded:
“Factory (add ): $10,000. Thorn St., bet. L. V. R. R. & Green st. Priv. plans. Owner Keystone Vehicle Co., on prem. Gen. contr. let to Chas. N. Schlegel.”
The October 14, 1920 edition of Motor Age announced:
"Daniels Designing New Bodies
"Reading, Pa., Oct. 8 - Although the Daniels Motor Car Co. of this city will continue to make its present style of chassis without change for the present year, the company's engineers are designing two new body styles. One of these, which is nearing completion, is to be a four-passenger chummy roadster.
"In addition to the new models, the company is contemplating a few changes in some of its closed body styles."
An article in the October 17, 1920 edition of the Decatur Daily Review included a glowing review of recent visit by a Daniels test driver:
“DANIELS AUTO IN TEST TRIP HERE
“New Machine Made In Reading, Pennsylvania.
“A man from Reading, Penn., was in Decatur Friday morning: on his way back from California. He was driving a Daniels car. It will not necessarily betray your ignorance if you admit that you never heard of the car. It is one of the automobiles that has a hallmark but not a trademark. It weighs 4,400 pounds, cost $5,000. It has an aluminum body, speaking tube, electric lights wherever electric lights are very likely to be needed and all of the other accessories and conveniences that human ingenuity could think of. The car had run 10,840 miles and looked as highly polished as if it had just come out of the shop. It has an eight cylinder motor and is made by the Daniels Motor Car company in Reading, Pa.
“The man driving the car is a road man and he had taken the car to California on a test trip. He had with him a woman seventy-six years old and they were making 300 miles a day.”
Daniels' and Parish's listings in the 1921 Reading Directory follow:
“Daniels Motor Co. Inc.; George E. Daniels, president; Neff E. Parish, vice-president; W.L. Davis, secretary & treasurer; R.A. Wetherhold, assistant treasurer; auto manufacturers, 3d cor. L.V.R.R.
“Parish Manufacturing Corporation, C.A. Dana, president, Neff E. Parish, vice-president; J.A. Archer, secretary-treasurer; pressed steel automobile frames & stampings, Chestnut cor. 7th.”
The January 27, 1921 issue of Motor Age announced the 1921 Daniels Lineup:
"No important changes are noted in the construction of the 1921 Daniels chassis. The engine, which is of theor own design and manufacture, is an eight-cylinder job 3 1/2 by 5 7/8 in. A very complete line of bodies including twelve types is offered. This year's creations are the coupe and the submarine speedster. Special bodies will be built to meet the requirments of the owner. Equipment is mnost complete, including trunk rack."
The 1921 Daniels 'Model D' was offered in 7 different body styles; 4-passenger touring at $5,689, 2-passenger speedster, 3-passenger roadster and 6-passnger touring at $5,350, 3-passnger coupe at $6,250, collapsible winter roadster at $6,500, and a 4-passenger sedan at $6,950.
After sixteen months of experimenting on the 'Model C's' mechanics, the Daniels Motor Car Company announced the 'Model D.' This was the last model produced and by far the best. In 1921, Mr. Daniels said that this engine had been tested for sixteen months and was now better than any other engine he had ever seen. This new Daniels, although it looked a good deal like the others, was really as much better mechanically as was claimed for it.
The Daniels enjoyed strong sales in the major US cities, with the majority sold through the Manhattan (A. Elliott Ranney Co., 224-6 West Fifty-Ninth Street) and Chicago (Daniels-Parish Co., 1218 S. Michigan Ave.) distributors. The Los Angeles distributor reported stong sales to people involved in the movie business and Pittsburg steel barons were fond of the car as well. Other distributors were located in Brooklyn, Havana (Cuba), Tulsa, Philadelphia, Newport (RI), Atlantic City, Boston, Cleveland, Detroit and San Francisco - 16 dealers in all.
The January 27, 1921 issue of Motor Age announced the 1921 Daniels Lineup:
"No important changes are noted in the construction of the 1921 Daniels chassis. The engine, which is of theor own design and manufacture, is an eight-cylinder job 3 1/2 by 5 7/8 in. A very complete line of bodies including twelve types is offered. This year's creations are the coupe and the submarine speedster. Special bodies will be built to meet the reuqirments of the owner. Equipment is mnost complete, including trunk rack."
The 1922 Model D featured 7 factory body styles: 4-passenger touring, 7-passenger touring and 2-passnger speedster at $5,350; 3-passenger coupe at $6,250; 4-passenger sedan at $7,000, 5-passnger suburban at $7025, and a 5-passenger brougham at $7,250.
Daniels prices were amongst the highest for any domestically-made vehicle, and when sales fell off in early 1922, the factory slashed prices on its most popular models, the March 8, 1922 issue of Automobile Topics reporting:
“Daniels Prices Lowered
“Daniels Motor Car Co., Reading, Pa., has decreased the price of most of its open and closed cars. New and old prices of representative models are:
In a May 1922 interview Daniels stated that he believed that the downward fall of auto prices was stopping, that good cars like the Daniels would be in more demand, and that any further cuts in price would come out of the quality of the materials used in an automobile, since wages could not go down any further.
The interview coincided with an announcement by Gillespie, Meeds & Co. that Paul du Pont had become associated with the Daniels Motor Co., the May 11, 1922 issue of the Automobile (Automotive Industries) reporting:
“Paul duPont Identified Actively with Daniels
“NEW YORK, May 9 — Announcement is made by Gillespie, Meeds & Co., who are forming a syndicate to underwrite the sale of $1,000,000 of 8 per cent preferred stock of the Daniels Motor Co. of Reading, Pa., that Paul duPont of Wilmington, Del., president of duPont Motors, Inc., and his associates have become actively identified with the Daniels company. It is stated that duPont has taken a substantial financial interest in the company.
“There have been reports recently that George E. Daniels had decided to resign as president of the company, but he emphatically denies that there is any truth in the statement, which he characterizes as ‘ridiculous.’
“At the annual meeting of the directors the following officers were elected to serve for the ensuing year: George E. Daniels, president; N. E. Parish, vice-president and chairman of the board; L. L. Gillespie and H. W. Mansfield, vice-presidents; W. L. Davis, secretary and treasurer; J. K. Rhinelander, assistant secretary, and R. A. Wetherhold, assistant treasurer.”
More details emerged in the May 13, 1922 issue of Automobile Topics:
“Daniels Motor Stock Offered To Public
“New York Brokers Announce 10,000 Shares of Preferred at $95 – Company Elects Board of Directors – Paul duPont Reported Interested
“Closely following the announcement of the election of the directors of the new organization of the Daniels Motor Co., 10,000 shares of 8 per cent cumulative stock of the Company with a par value of $100 a share were placed on the market May 11. The stock, offered at 95 and accrued dividends, will yield 8.42 per cent, according to information furnished by the Company. With each share subscribed will be given a warrant for two shares of common stock of no par value, upon the payment of $10 a share.
“The purpose of the new issue, according to the prospectus of the Company, is to provide funds to pay off all bank loans and increase the Company's working capital to care for ‘increased business now being received.’ The Company in the past has paid all dividends on its preferred stock, President George Daniels states, and expects through increased production and the carrying out of its new financing to easily take care of the preferred dividends amounting to approximately $136,000. Including the $1,000,000 of stock now being issued through Gillespie, Meeds & Co., New York city brokers, the Company has $1,732,475 of preferred of a par value of $100 a share outstanding and 300,000 shares of no par value common stock.
“At the organization meeting of the directors of the Company, the following officers were elected: George E. Daniels, president: N.E. Parish, vice-president and chairman of the board: L.L. Gillespie, vice-president; H.A. Mansfield, vice-president: W.L. Davis, secretary and treasurer; Philip Kipp Rhinelander. assistant secretary, and R.A. Wetherhold, assistant treasurer. Paul du Pont, president of the du Pont Motor Co., and his associates have become actively identified with the policy of the Daniels company, according to Gillespie, Meeds & Co., and has taken a ‘substantial interest in it.’ The du Pont Motor Co. was organized in July, 1919, and heretofore has remained independent of automobile affiliations.
“The Daniels company has no bonded indebtedness other than a mortgage of $50,000 on its plant, which has been enlarged during the past year. No big expenditures will be necessary to make possible manufacture of 2,000 cars a year, the Company asserts. Heretofore the production has never been above 700 cars yearly.”
Two months later Daniels announced that he was planning to double the output of the Reading works, the August 1922 issue of Motor Record reporting:
“George E. Daniels, president of the Daniels Motor Company, states that plans have been perfected to double the output of the corporation's plants beginning September 1. The demand for Daniels cars, according to Mr. Daniels, has been excellent and many orders have been booked for fall delivery.”
The firm's listing in the 1922 edition of Moodys Manual of Railroads and Corporation Securities, follows:
DANIELS MOTOR CO. — Inc. March 30, 1920, in Del.; commenced business May 1, 1920. Manufacturers of automobiles. Plant located at Reading, Pa., on the Philadelphia & Reading RR., Lebanon Valley Branch. Annual capacity, 1,000 automobiles; annual production, 750 automobiles.
New Interests. — It was reported May 8, 1922, that Paul du Pont, President of the du Pont Motor Co., and his associates have become actively identified with the Daniels Motor Co.
Capital Stock. — Authorized, 300,000 shares Com. of no par value and $3,500,000 8% cumulative Pfd.; par, $100; outstanding, 300,000 shares Com. and $1,732,475 Pfd. Pfd. stock has preference as to assets as well as to dividends and is subject to redemption at the option of the company at $110 per share. $1,000,000 Pfd. stock was offered in May, 1922, at 95 and accrued dividends to yield 8.42%, each share of Pfd. stock accompanied by warrant for two shares of Com. stock of no par value upon payment of $10 per share at the Empire Trust Co. prior to Sept. 1, 1922. Transfer Agent: Empire Trust Co., New York. Registrar: Guaranty Trust Co., New York. Com. stock listed on New York Curb Market.
Dividends. — Dividends on Pfd. regularly paid quarterly.
GENERAL BALANCE SHEET, JANUARY 31, 1922.
(Accounts Audited by Lybrand, Ross Bros. & Montgomery.)
Assets Land, buildings, machinery, etc. $677,003 Investment In Daniels-Parish Motor Co. $9,700 Cash $52,038 Accounts receivable $42,538 Inventories $742,482 Subscriptions to Preferred stock $30,075 Prepaid and accrued accounts $115,126 Cash deposits for elect. installation $1,193 Organization expenses, etc. $163,602 Treasury stock $30,511 Accounts receivable in litigation $23,838 Total $1,898,096
Liabilities Common stock $188,846 Preferred stock $669,225 Subscriptions to Pfd. Stock $63,250 Mortgage on property $50,000 Deposits by agents $16,650 Bills payable $475,183 Accounts payable $243,777 Accrued salaries, etc. $14,993 Federal income and profits taxes $1,728 Reserve for work under guarantee $9,157 Surplus $165, 287 Total $1,898,096
Officers: George E. Daniels, Pres.; N. E. Parish, V-P; Lawrence L. Gillespie, 2d V-P; H. A. Mansfield, 3d V-P; W. L. Davis, Sec. & Treas.; P. K. Rhinelandcr, Asst. Sec; R. A. Wetherhold, Asst. Treas.
Directors: George E. Daniels, N. E. Parish, Edwin S. Steese, Potter P. Parish, Lawrence L. Gillespie, Herbert A. Mansfield, W. L. Davis.
Annual Meeting, first Monday in March. General Office, 3rd St., Reading, Pa."
The Daniels-Parish Co. was the only factory-owned Daniels outlet, and was located at 1218 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago.
Neff E. Parish disposed of a large block of his Daniels stock at the end of 1922, effectively giving control of the firm to a group of Manhattan investors led by F. Frazier Jelke and Phillip K. Rhinelander, the December 7, 1922 issue of The Automobile (Automotive Industries) reporting:
"Additions To Daniels Board
"New York, Dec 4. - E. Roland Harriman, Henry Coleman Drayton and F. Frazier Jelke of Jelke, Hood & Co., and Philip Kip Rhinelander of the banking firm of Gillespie, Meeds & Co., have been added to the board of directors of the Daniels Motor Co., whose plant is located in Reading, Pa.
"The four board members are reported to have acquired a substantial stock interest in the company, and it is expected that the infusion of new blood will be followed by important industiral expansions. The company is now building its own engines at the Reading Plant."
It now appears as if the rumors concerning Daniels wanting to leave the company earlier in the year were true. According to Daniels historian Lauren Suter:
"When he learned of the sale, Daniels became so angry with Parish that he told him (Mr. Parish) what he thought of the action, and in no uncertain terms".
A little more than a month after the buyout, the new directors forced the firm into a 'friendly' bankruptcy proceeding. A small item in an automotive trade dated January 20, 1923 announced:
“Receivers appointed for Daniels Motor Co. of Reading, Pa., in a friendly proceeding.”
Michigan Manufacturer and Financial Record reported:
"DANIELS MOTOR INVOLVED
"The Daniels Motor Company, Reading, Pa., which makes the Daniels Eight, applied for a temporary receiver, which has been appointed to continue the operations and in the direction and reorganization of the company."
Production continued into the summer, but the receivers, unable to get any third parties interested in salvaging the firm, petitioned the court for permission to sell its assets, the August 6, 1923 Oakland Tribune reporting:
“Receivers of the Daniels Motor Company have asked the court for permission to sell the assets of the company at public sale on October 2.”
The September 30, 1923 Oakland Tribune announced the auction had been moved to October 4th:
“Plant To Be Sold At Receivers' Sale
“Announcement is made by Samuel T. Freeman & Co., auctioneers, that they will sell at a receiver’s sale the plant of the Daniels Motor Company of Reading, Pa.., on October 4 at Reading. The sale will include the real estate, service rights and good will, machinery and equipment and stock and fixtures.”
Although the high bidder at the sale offered $84,271, it was subsequently rejected by the court, the October 30, 1923 New Castle (PA) News reporting:
“Offers Made For Daniels Company Assets Rejected
“(International New Service) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., Oct. 30. — Federal Judge Dickinson Monday rejected offers of $84,271 made for the entire assets of the Daniels Motor company at public auction last week at the company’s plant at Reading, Pa., on the ground the offers were inadequate.”
With Daniels in the hands of a reciever and the Parish Mfg. Co. in the hands of Charles Dana, Neff E. Parish took his fortune and relocated to Pasadena, California (1333 Wentworth, Ave.). On November 26, 1923 he married his second wife, Lillian M. Webb (also widowed, nee Neff, b. Oct 2, 1880 in Toledo, Ohio) in Santa Ana, Orange County, California.
Apparently Philadelphia-based Levene Motors Co. - who specialized in buying out bankrupt manufacturers to acquire their often lucrative replacement parts business - was the high bidder and after further negotiations with Judge Dickinson, was awarded Daniels' assets, the January 17, 1924 issue of The Automobile (Automotive Industries) reporting:
"The Levene Motor Co. of this city has bought at receivers' sale the entire plant of the Daniels Motor Co. of Reading, Pa., for $90,000, subject to a $50,000 mortgage."
A letter was sent out to all known Daniels owners in April of 1924, informing them that the Levene company would now supply factory service and spare parts in their Philadelphia service facility which was located at 2200 Diamond St. The Levene Company's officers were as follows:
"President, Emil Levene; vice-president, B.N. Levene; treasurer, George Levene; secretary, Ben Levene."
When Billy Durant learned of Daniels embarrassment, he offered him a job at Locomobile, appointing him general manager then later vice-president. Daniels was accompanied by his body designer Sydney Atterby, who is credited with designing the coachwork on the Locomobile Model 90.
Neff E. Parish died of complications that developed following cancer surgery in a Berlin, Germany sanitarium on June 11, 1928 at the age of 65, the June 18, 1928 issue of the Lebanon Daily News reporting:
“NEFF E. PARISH, READING, DIED IN BERLIN, GERMANY
“Reading, Pa., Today,—(AP),—Neff B. Parish, aged 65 years, founder of the Parish Manufacturing company, maker of automobile frames, died in a Berlin, Germany, sanatorium following an operation for an internal trouble. He came to this city from Cleveland in 1905 and started a large plant, later sold to the Spicer Mfg. company. He was a native of Atlanta, Ga., and was a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers and the Carriage Builders' Association.”
In 1929 Durant's financial difficulties forced the cessation of Locomobile production and the June 2, 1929 issue of the New York Times announced Daniels had taken a job in the automobile department of Hanff-Metzger, a large advertising agency with offices in Manhattan, Chicago, Detroit and Los Angeles:
“George E. Daniels, at one time vice president and general manager of the Oakland Motor Car Company, as well as of the Locomobile Company, and manufacturer of the Daniels 8, has joined Hanff-Metzger, Inc., New York advertising firm.”
The 1930 US Census listed Daniels as a resident of Larchmont, Westchester County, New York, his occupation solicitor, auto advertising.
Shortly after Studebaker announced their pending bankruptcy, Daniels joined a group of former automobile executives and Studebaker shareholders in the organization of a 'committee' to save the firm, the March 24, 1933 New York Times reporting:
“Group For Studebaker
“M.D. Robinson Heads Committee to Plan Reorganization.
“South Bend, Ind. March 23, AP – Organization of a protective committee for holders of common stock of the Studebaker Corporation to propose a reorganization of the company for the benefit of both creditors and stockholders was announced today. The corporation was placed in receivership on Saturday. There are 36,711 stockholders.
“The chairman of the committee is Monroe Douglas Robinson of New York. The secretary is M.M. Palmer, also of that city. Other members are Robert Nelson, secretary of the Certainteed Products Company; William R. Hurlburt, vice president of the Granville Aircraft Corporation; G.M. Williams, president of the Marmon Car Company, and George E. Daniels, former vice president of the Oakland Motor Car Company.”
Daniels remained a close friend of Durant’s and attended his 1947 funeral. He retired to Danbury, Connecticut, passing away on March 24, 1954 in Danbury, Fairfield County, Connecticut at the age of 79.
© 2013 Mark Theobald for Coachbuilt.com
The Daniels Motor Car Company first produced American Automobiles in 1916. For eight years they made large, expensive luxury cars of high quality from in an old coach factory at Reading PA.
George Daniels was an excellent lawyer, engineer and mechanic while Neff Paris produced automobile parts and frames.
In addition George Daniels worked in the automotive field for ten years as head of Buick Motor Car Co. distribution in eastern Pennsylvania, Vice President and General Manager of the Oakland Motor Car Company and was a member of the original board of directors of General Motors. Neff Parish owned a company that manufactured automobile frames for several expensive makes of passenger cars including frames for the Pierce-Arrow.
The first Daniels automobiles were a Model "A" and about 300 cars were produced. The Daniels Model "A" used a 34 horsepower eight cylinder V-8 engine made by Herchell-Spillman Co. of North Tonawanda, NY. A two passenger Roadster or Speedster (shown above), Four passenger Touring Car, Seven passenger Limousine and a Landaulet were produced in 1916. All were produced with a 127 inch wheel base.
In 1917 and 1918 the now popular Model "A" and a new Model "B" also with a 127 inch wheel base were produced by The Daniels Motor Car Co. The Model "A" and "B" production included a Roadster, Touring Car, Cabriolet, Sedan, Brougham, Limousine and a Berline. Prices ranged from $3,100.00 to $5,200.00.
In 1919 the Model "C" came out along with the first Daniels built engine. However, only one or two hundred Daniels Model "C" were built due to Daniels engine design problems. A new and improved Daniels V-8 engine was introduced in 1920 on the Daniels Model "D". The new and improved Daniels engine had more horsepower and the Daniels Model "D" was much better mechanically than previous model "C".
The 1920 Daniels Model "D" was made in seven different body styles. (1) $4,750.00 seven passenger Touring Car, (2) $4,750.00 four passenger Touring Car, (3) $4,750 two passenger Roadster (4) $4,750.00 three passenger Coupe, (5) $6,250.00 four door Sedan, (6) $6,250.00 Suburban, (7) $6,250.00 Limousine.
The 1921 Daniels Model "D" was also made in seven different body styles. 1921 saw changes in both body styles and price. (1) $5,689.00 Four passenger Touring Car, (2) $5,