|Public Listed Company
|Motorcycles, bicycles, lawnmowers, cars
|Royal Enfield (India)
|Albert Eadie and Robert Walker Smith
|Royal Enfield Clipper, Crusader, Bullet, Interceptor, WD/RE, Super Meteor
Royal Enfield was a brand name under which The Enfield Cycle Company Limited of Redditch, Worcestershire sold motorcycles, bicycles, lawnmowers and stationary engines which they had manufactured.
Enfield Cycle Company also used the brand name Enfield without Royal
The first Royal Enfield motorcycle was built in 1901. The Enfield Cycle Company is responsible for the design and original production of the Royal Enfield Bullet, the longest-lived motorcycle design in history.
Enfield's remaining motorcycle business became part of Norton Villiers in 1967 and that business closed in 1978. A former subsidiary continues to manufacture Royal Enfield motorcycles in India.
George Townsend set up a business in 1851 in Redditch making sewing needles. In 1882 his son, also named George, started making components for cycle manufacturers including saddles and forks. By 1886 complete bicycles were being sold under the names Townsend and Ecossais. This business suffered a financial collapse in 1891. Albert Eadie, sales manager of Birmingham's Perry & Co Ltd, pen makers who had begun to supply components for cycles, and Robert Walker Smith, an engineer from D. Rudge & Co, were chosen by Townsend's bankers to run the business. Then, in 1892, the firm was re-incorporated and named Eadie Manufacturing Company Limited; it was based in Snow Hill, Birmingham. Later, in 1907, after serious losses from their newly floated Enfield Autocar business, Eadie Manufacturing and its pedal-cycle component business was absorbed by Birmingham Small Arms Company (BSA). Years later, the BSA chairman was to tell shareholders that the acquisition had "done wonders for the cycle department". Eadie still retained a separate identity when Raleigh bought BSA's cycle interests in 1957.
Eadie had won contracts to supply precision parts for fire arms to the government's long-established Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield, Middlesex, now the London Borough of Enfield with its offshoot in Sparkbrook and had assumed the brand name Royal Enfield. In 1896 they also incorporated a new subsidiary company, The New Enfield Cycle Company Limited, to handle much of the cycle work and in 1897 Enfield making complete cycles as well parts for other assemblers took all the cycle assembly work from Eadie.
Enfield diversified into motor cycles, 1901 and motor cars, 1902. The motor department was put into a separate subsidiary, Enfield Autocar Company Limited incorporated in 1906 and established in new works at Hunt End, Redditch. However Enfield Autocar after just 19 months reported a substantial loss and, aside from Eadie himself, shareholders were unwilling to provide more capital so in early 1907 Eadie sold his control of Eadie Manufacturing to BSA. Albert Eadie and Robert Walker Smith had been appointed directors of BSA before the proposed sale ha been put to shareholders. The new combined BSA and Eadie business manufactured "military and sporting rifles, (pedal) cycle and cycle components, motor-cars etc." "BSA and Eadie cycle specialities". But there were still minority Eadie shareholders alongside BSA in 1957.
The business of Enfield Autocar, that is to say the plant and stock, was sold to Birmingham's Alldays & Onions Pneumatic Engineering. Enfield Cycle Company took over the Hunt End premises.
In 1955, Enfield Cycle Company partnered with Madras Motors in India in forming Enfield of India, based in Chennai, and started assembling the 350cc Royal Enfield Bullet motorcycle in Madras. The first machines were assembled from components imported from England. Starting in 1957, Enfield of India acquired the machines necessary to build components in India, and by 1962 all components were made in India.
Frank Walker Smith (1888-1962), eldest son of Robert Walker Smith, joined Enfield Cycle Company in 1909. Appointed joint (with his father) managing director in 1914 he took over the full responsibility when his father died in 1933. After his death Enfield was bought by investors E & H P Smith who sold Enfield for £82,500 to Norton Villiers in 1967. While Norton Villiers acquired 33 per cent of Enfield India the assets of Enfield's diesel engine division and pedal cycle and spares divisions were not picked up.
Royal Enfield produced bicycles at its Redditch factory until it closed in early 1967. The company's last new bicycle was the 'Revelation' small wheeler, released in 1965.[better source needed] Production of motorcycles ceased in 1970 and the original Redditch, Worcestershire-based company was dissolved in 1971.
Enfield of India continued producing the 'Bullet', and began branding its motorcycles 'Royal Enfield' in 1999. A lawsuit over the use of 'Royal', brought by trademark owner David Holder, was judged in favour of Enfield of India, who now produce motorcycles under the Royal Enfield name.
By 1899, Royal Enfield were producing a quadricycle – a bicycle modified by adding a wrap-around four-wheeled frame, retaining a rear rider-saddle with handlebars – having a front-mounted passenger seat, driven by a rear-mounted De Dion engine.
After experimenting with a heavy bicycle frame fitted with a Minerva engine clamped to the front downtube, Enfield built their first motorcycle in 1901 with a 239 cc engine.
A light car was introduced in 1903 powered by either a French Ader V-twin or De Dion single cylinder engine. In 1906 car production was transferred to a new company, the Enfield Autocar Co Ltd with premises in Hunt End, Redditch. The independent company only lasted until 1908 when it was purchased by Alldays & Onions.
In 1907, Enfield merged with the Alldays & Onions Pneumatic Engineering Co. of Birmingham, and began manufacturing the Enfield-Allday automobile.
By 1910, Royal Enfield was using 344 cc Swiss Motosacoche V-Twin engines, or large-displacement JAP and Vickers-Wolseley engines.
In 1912, the Royal Enfield Model 180 sidecar combination was introduced with a 770 cc V-twin JAP engine which was raced successfully in the Isle of Man TT and at Brooklands.
First World War (1911–1921)
In 1914 Enfield supplied large numbers of motorcycles to the British War Department and also won a motorcycle contract for the Imperial Russian Government. Enfield used its own 225 cc two-stroke single and 425 cc V-twin engines. They also produced an 8 hp motorcycle sidecar model fitted with a Vickers machine gun.
Inter-war years (1921–1939)
In 1921, Enfield developed a new 976 cc twin, and in 1924 launched the first Enfield four-stroke 350 cc single using a Prestwich Industries engine. In 1928, Royal Enfield began using the bulbous 'saddle' tanks and centre-spring girder front forks, one of the first companies to do so. Even though it was trading at a loss in the depression years of the 1930s, the company was able to rely on reserves to keep going. In 1931, Albert Eddie, one of the founders of the company, died and his partner R.W. Smith died soon afterwards in 1933.
Second World War (1939–1945)
During World War II, The Enfield Cycle Company was called upon by the British authorities to develop and manufacture military motorcycles. The models produced for the military were the WD/C 350 cc sidevalve, WD/CO 350 cc OHV, WD/D 250 cc SV, WD/G 350 cc OHV and WD/L 570 cc SV. One of the most well-known Enfields was the [ designed to be dropped by parachute with airborne troops.
In order to establish a facility not vulnerable to the wartime bombing of the Midlands, an underground factory was set up, starting in 1942, in a disused "Bath Stone" quarry at Westwood, near Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire. Many staff were transferred from Redditch and an estate of "prefabs" was built in Westwood to house them.
As well as motorcycle manufacture, it built other equipment for the war effort such as mechanical "predictors" for anti-aircraft gunnery: the manufacture of such high precision equipment was helped by the constant temperature underground. After the war the factory continued, concentrating on engine manufacture and high precision machining. After production of Royal Enfield motorcycles ceased, the precision engineering activities continued until the final demise of the company.
Postwar Model G and Model J and ex-military C and CO (1946–1954)
Postwar, Royal Enfield resumed production of the single cylinder ohv 350cc model G and 500cc Model J, with rigid rear frame and telescopic front forks. These were ride-to-work basic models, in a world hungry for transport. A large number of factory reconditioned ex-military sv Model C and ohv Model CO singles were also offered for sale, as they were sold off as surplus by various military services.
In 1948, a groundbreaking development in the form of rear suspension springing was developed, initially for competition model "trials" models (modern enduro type machines), but this was soon offered on the roadgoing Model Bullet 350cc, a single cylinder OHV. This was a very popular seller, offering a comfortable ride. A 500cc version appeared shortly after. A mid 1950s version of the Bullet manufacturing rights and jigs, dies and tools was sold to India for manufacture there, and where developed versions continue to this day.
500 Twins, Meteors, Super Meteors and Constellations 1949-1963
In 1949, Royal Enfields version of the now popular selling parallel twins appeared. This 500cc version was the forerunner of a range of Royal Enfield Meteors, 700cc Super Meteors and 700cc Constellations. Offering good performance at modest cost, these sold widely, if somewhat quietly in reputation. The 700cc Royal Enfield Constellation Twin has been described as the first Superbike.
250 cc models
The 250cc class was important in the UK as it was the largest engine which a 'learner' could ride without passing a test. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Royal Enfield produced a number of 250 cc machines, including a racer, the 'GP' and a Scrambler, the 'Moto-X', which used a modified Crusader frame, leading link forks and a Villiers Starmaker engine. The Clipper was a base-model tourer with the biggest-seller being the Crusader, a 248 cc pushrod OHV single producing 18 bhp (13 kW).
In 1965, a 21 bhp (16 kW) variant called the Continental GT, with red GRP tank, five-speed gearbox (which was also an option on the Crusader), clip-on handlebars, rearset footrests, swept pipe and hump-backed seat was launched. It sold well with its race-styling including a fly-screen resembling a race number plate which doubled as a front number plate mount.
The Avon 'Speedflow' full sports fairing was available as an extra in complementary factory colours of red and white.
Other variants were the Olympic and 250 Super 5, notable for use of leading-link front suspension (all the other 250 road models had conventional telescopic forks) and the 250 'Turbo Twin', fitted with the Villiers 247 cc twin cylinder two-stroke engine.
The Royal Enfield GP production-volume racer was first raced in the Manx Grand Prix in September, 1964. Developed in conjunction with Royal Enfield Racing Manager Geoff Duke the first public appearance was at Earls Court Show in November, 1964. Using a duplex-tube frame, leading link forks and one-piece tank and seat unit, the 250cc two-stroke single engine was similar to other small capacity race machines offered from rivals Greeves, Cotton, DMW and particularly Villiers, which provided the engines for these marques and many other manufacturers and bike-builders including the 'Starmaker' competition engine used for the Scorpion racer and Sprite scrambler.
Royal Enfield Interceptor
During the onslaught of the Japanese motorcycle manufacturers in the late sixties and early seventies, the English factories made a final attempt with the 692cc Interceptor in 1960[not in citation given] –1961[not in citation given] followed in 1962–1968 [not in citation given] by the 736cc Series I and Series II Interceptors. Made largely for the US market, it sported lots of chrome and strong performance, completing the quarter mile in less than 13 seconds at speeds well above 175 km/h (105 mph). It became very popular in the US, but the classic mistake of not being able to supply this demand added to the demise of this last English-made Royal Enfield.
The Redditch factory ceased production in 1967 and the Bradford-on-Avon factory closed in 1970, which meant the end of the British Royal Enfield. After the factory closed a little over two hundred Series II Interceptor engines were stranded at the dock in 1970. These engines had been on their way to Floyd Clymer in the US; but Clymer had just died and his export agents, Mitchell's of Birmingham, were left to dispose of the engines. They approached the Rickman brothers for a frame. The main problem of the Rickman brothers had always been engine supplies, so a limited run of Rickman Interceptors were promptly built.
As far as the motorcycle brand goes, though, it would appear that Royal Enfield is the only motorcycle brand to span three centuries, and still going, with continuous production. A few of the original Redditch factory buildings remain (2009) and are part of the Enfield Industrial Estate.
From 1955 to 1959, Royal Enfields were painted red, and marketed in the USA as Indian Motorcycles by the Brockhouse Corporation, who had control of the Indian Sales Corporation (and therefore Indian Motorcycles) and had stopped manufacturing all American Indians in the Springfield factory in 1953. But Americans were not impressed by the badge engineering and the marketing agreement ended in 1960, and from 1961, Royal Enfields were available in the US under their own name. The largest Enfield 'Indian' was a 700 cc twin named the Chief, like its American predecessors.
This is a list of motorcycles produced under the Royal Enfield brand by the defunct original company, Enfield Manufacturing Company Ltd of Redditch, UK, and later users of the name, including the current user of the brand name, Royal Enfield (India) of Chennai, India.
|Prototype. Production of De Dion powered tricycles and quadricycles started in 1899.
|MAG or JAP
|Used Swiss MAG or British J.A.P. engine
|With V-twin JAP engine
|Model C, F, G
|Model D, H, HA
|Model E, J, JA
|Side-valve V- twin
|Side-valve V- twin
|Overhead-valve single with alloy head was derived from Model G. First use of now-famous Bullet name.
|Known as the "Flying Flea". Two-stroke single based on DKW RT. Used extensively in WW2 to jump with parachutes.
Royal Enfield Ensign, A two stroke of 148cc displacement and spring frame rear suspension, telescopic front forks, introduced in 1952/3.
Widely used for message delivery.
Based on the pre-war 350 cc side-valve bike, this model was supplied in large numbers to various military services and countries around the world, from 1939 to 1941. Post-war, many reconditioned bikes appeared on the civilian market.
A request by the Army to Royal Enfields for more power saw the overhead Model WD/CO appear, to replace the WD/C Model. This model was supplied in very large numbers 1941–44 to many services and countries around the world. Post-war, many reconditioned bikes appeared on the civilian market.
Supplied in small numbers.
Supplied in small numbers.
Supplied in small numbers.
|Royal Enfield Model CO 350
|350 cc ohv single
|A rigid-framed girder-fork wartime model (WD/CO), put back into production briefly post-war to fill a need for transport and all the machinery and a lot of parts were still available for this model.
|Royal Enfield Model G 350
|350 cc ohv single
|A rigid framed model with the new telescopic front fork, as modest priced basic transport it sold well.
|Royal Enfield Model J 500
|500 cc ohv single
|A rigid framed telescopic fork model, it offered a bigger engine than the almost identical looking Model G 350 cc.
|Royal Enfield Model J2 500
|500 cc ohv single twin port
|A rigid framed telescopic fork model, it offered a flashy twinport exhaust system - twin exhaust pipes one each side of the bike.
|500 cc OHV twin
|The first post-war twin cylinder in a swingarm frame with telescopic forks. It was simply called '500 Twin' and most non-engine parts were shared with the new Bullet. Its factory photograph is often mistakenly called 'Bullet' on various websites.
|350 cc single
|ISDT winner, and very widely used roadbike with swingarm rear suspension.
Amongst the first to be so equipped. (See main article Royal Enfield Bullet.)
|500 cc single
|(See main article Royal Enfield Bullet.)
|500 cc/600 cc single
|Competition model built for US flat track competition market; it was essentially a Bullet 500 bottom end with a substantially larger cylinder head with integrated rocker box, larger ports and valves. The bike was nicknamed "Big Head". Came with 1.5" Amal GP carburetor and Lucas Racing Magneto. 193 ever made. One 600 cc prototype was made and sold per factory records. A "Big Head" bullet was sold in the UK concurrently for the civilian market with a smaller inlet valve and Amal Monobloc carburetor.
|500 cc twin
|Follow up of the 500 Twin. Parallel twin housed in the same swing arm frame as the singles. 1960 onwards as Sports and de Luxe model.
|700 cc twin
|40 bhp touring model
|700 cc twin
|700 cc twin
|163 ever made; all were exported to North America; Engine code starts with VAX.
|736 cc twin
|Series 1, Series 1A, Series 2 (with wet sump lubrication)
Indian-branded Royal Enfields (sold in USA from 1955 to 1960)
Indian branded motorcycles included:
|700 cc twin
|Longest wheelbase of any post-war Royal Enfield; single Monobloc carb; distributor ignition; 16" wheels; Albion heavy-duty gearbox with AM prefix. Earlier bikes had Super Meteor spec Engine; but later bikes came with Constellation spec engine. This is the only bike that was not replaced with an AMC model when AMC took over Indian in 1960.
|700 cc twin
|19" wheels. Single carb and dual carb, valanced fenders. Engine had Super Meteor spec.
|700 cc twin
|Constellation spec engine. Single TT carb on most models. Slim alloy fenders. Quick detach headlights. Sportiest of all Enfield based Indians.
|500 cc twin
|19" wheels, Meteor Minor engine specs. Early casquette debuted in 1954. Earlier bikes had the pre-1955 frame.
|500 cc single
|Same as 500 cc Bullet with high pipes and big 5" speedo. Sold as a competition bike.
|500 cc single
|Competition version of the Woodsman with low open pipes, Amal TT carburetor and racing magneto, no lights and speedometer. Very few were made.
|346 cc single
|3-speed gearbox with provision for a reverse gear. Hand shifter. Some models had 16-inch tires all around and some others had 19-inch front and 16-inch rear.
|Fire Arrow & Hounds Arrow
|248 cc single
|Earlier models were semi-unit Clipper engine; later models had 248 cc unit single engine.
|148 cc single
|Two-stroke engine. Most were painted yellow from the factory. Not very many were imported.
Enfield India Ltd. 1955 onwards
Enfield India was renamed to Royal Enfield Motors in 1995.
|150 cc two-stroke engine
|Motorcycle with a two-stroke 175 cc Villiers engine. Sherpa was rechristened Crusader after a restyling job in 1970.
|Motorcycle with an enlarged 200 cc Crusader engine. It was a favorite amongst racing enthusiasts in India.
|Scooter with a two-stroke 173 cc Villiers engine and heel/toe gearshift. First Indian made bi-wheeler to have an electric starter. It used a Dynastart system.
|It was a licensed copy of the Zundapp KS 175. It was the first motorcycle in India to sport a disc brake. Wheels were cast alloy and front end sported 35 mm Paioli forks. Later model was called Grand Prix. Rare DW175 model came with drum brakes, both front and back.
|Air-cooled version of the Zundapp KS50 with 3-speed gearbox
|Step thru moped with kick start and hand gear shift. Based on Zundapp ZS/ZX 50 models.
|Mini moped designed by Morbidelli of Italy to manufacture in India. The 22 cc two-stroke engine had a centrifugal clutch and the fuel was carried in the frame down tube.
|Cruiser style motorcycle with 535 cc (87 mm bore) based on Fritz Egli tuned Bullets. Hi-volume oil pumps, 4-speed gearbox and two tone paint. Indian Market only model. Also available with electric start. A rare 350 cc model was also sold for some time.
|The only diesel motorcycle to enter mass production, with a 325 cc 6.5 bhp Lombardini diesel engine, and 3.5 hp version, the gearbox was reinforced to withstand increased torque associated with a diesel engine. The Taurus came with heavy-duty luggage rack for vending jobs, but the top speed was limited to roughly 80 km/h by its lack of power.
|346 cc/499 cc
|Introduced with the classic 350 cc Bullet engine with 4-speed gearbox; it later attained the AVL lean burn engine and eventually a 5-speed gearbox. Later, LB500 model came with the 500 cc AVL lean burn engine. Sheet metal and trim had slight variations depending on the year. Indian market only model.
|Originally started manufacturing in 1955 with 350 cc iron-barrel engine and 4-speed Albion gearbox. Bullet Continental sold in USA in 1990s with left shift 4-speed gearbox. Attained the Unit Construction Engine in May 2010. Many submodels introduced during its lifespan like Bullet Superstar. In 2010, the classic iron-barrel engine was replaced with the 350 cc UCE engine. Bullet 350 is the cheapest of all the Royal Enfield models and is devoid of an electric starter, front disc brake, and gas filled shocks. Only available in black with gold pinstripes.
|Historically sold worldwide in different variations with both 4-speed and 5-speed gearboxes (The 5-speed iron-barrel engine model was sold under the name Sixty-5). In 2009 iron-barrel engine production came to an end but the B5 export model, with a fuel-injected UCE engine, is sold as the Bullet 500 in almost all international markets. It is currently available in forest green and glossy black colour schemes, and features unique silver petrol tank decorations.
|Indian market only model with 346 cc classic engine. 4-speed or 5-speed gearbox. Later models with electric start and TCI ignition. Attained the UCE engine in 2010 and is now known as Electra Twinspark. Was available on the export market with a classic carburettor-equipped 500cc engine as the Electra X prior to Euro-4 legislation halting its production in 2009.
|Export-only model with 500 cc AVL lean-burning engine and 5-speed gearbox. Equipped with the Euro-4 compliant UCE engine in 2009. A chrome edition was available from 2010-2013, called the G5 Deluxe, which was equipped with fuel injection and a front disc brake. Previously available in several specifications, such as a flat-track style version of the Electra X, sold exclusively in the UK by importer Watsonian Squire between 2011 and 2013. The G5 was sold alongside the C5 Chrome, and has been largely superseded by the B5, often referred to as the "Bullet 500" in the export market.
|Cruiser style motorcycle that was a big hit to command almost half the domestic sales. Attained Euro-4 compliant Unit Construction Engine(UCE) in 2008 and was rechristened Thunderbird Twinspark. In 2013 it underwent a major facelift introducing digital speedometer and fuel gauge along with projector headlamps. Indian Market only model.
|With Euro-4 compliant Unit Construction engine. Both Indian and International markets. Sold under the model name C5 in most International markets. Features include fuel injection, solo seat and 18-inch rear wheel. Several limited edition and special colour schemes have been available for this model at various times, notably the current-model C5 Chrome, military tan and green, as well as limited-edition Squadron camouflage paint schemes.
|Recently made available in the export market with a Euro-4 compliant Unit Construction engine. Equipped with UCAL\BS29 carburettor and twinspark ignition. Shares styling with the Classic 500 series of motorbikes.
|500 cc variant of the Thunderbird. Fuel injection, digital console, electronic fuel gauge, projector headlamps and 18-inch wheels. Currently the flagship model of Royal Enfield India.
|350 cc variant of the Thunderbird. Digital console, electronic fuel gauge, projector headlamps and 18-inch wheels. Currently the flagship model of Royal Enfield India.
|Features include a fuel-injected 500cc unit-construction engine which has been redesigned and bored out to 535cc, and cafe racer styling inspired by the historic 250cc Royal Enfield Continental, which was produced between 1963 and 1968. Equipped with Brembo 300 mm front disc brake and Pirelli Sports Demon tyres in factory configuration, it represents a step up for Royal Enfield's brand integration and production quality. The double cradle frame developed by Harris Performance UK, and Paioli gas-charged shock absorbers with adjustable preload contribute to a more stable ride. Features a semi-digital console and electronic fuel gauge.
|Entry level dual-purpose adventure bike. All-new engine, 411 cc, referred to as the long-stroke "LS410". 5-speed constant mesh transmission. Front/rear disc brakes.