BMW headquarters in Munich
|Traded as||FWB: BMW|
Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG (BFW)
|Founded||7 March 1916|
|Founder||Franz Josef Popp, Karl Rapp, Camillo Castiglioni|
|Headquarters||Munich, Bavaria, Germany|
|Harald Krüger (CEO)
(Chairman of the Supervisory Board)
|Products||Luxury vehicles, sports cars, motorcycles, bicycles|
|Owner||Stefan Quandt (29%)
Susanne Klatten (21%)
Public float (50%)
Number of employees
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (German for Bavarian Motor Works), usually known under its abbreviation BMW, is a German luxury vehicle, motorcycle, and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916.
It is one of the best-selling luxury automakers in the world The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market indexHeadquartered in Munich, Bavaria, BMW owns Mini cars and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars BMW produces motorcars under the BMW Motorsport division and motorcycles under BMW Motorrad, and plug-in electric cars under the BMW i sub-brand and the "iPerformance" model designation within the regular BMW lineup
BMW towers and museum, Munich, Germany
BMW Group Classic
BMW AG originated with three other manufacturing companies, Rapp Motorenwerke and Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFw) in Bavaria, and Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach in Thuringia.
Aircraft engine manufacturer Rapp Motorenwerke became Bayerische Motorenwerke in 1916 The engine manufacturer, which built proprietary industrial engines after World War I, was then bought by the owner of BFw who then merged BFw into BMW and moved the engine works onto BFw's premises BFw's motorcycle sideline was improved upon by BMW and became an integral part of their business
BMW became an automobile manufacturer in 1929 when it purchased Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach, which, at the time, built Austin Sevens under licence under the Dixi marque. BMW's team of engineers progressively developed their cars from small Seven-based cars into six-cylinder luxury cars and, in 1936, began production of the BMW 328 sports car. Aircraft engines, motorcycles, and automobiles would be BMW's main products until World War II. During the war, against the wishes of its director Franz Josef Popp, BMW concentrated on aircraft engine production, with motorcycles as a side line and automobile manufacture stopped altogether.
After the war, BMW survived by making pots, pans, and bicycles until 1948, when it restarted motorcycle production. Meanwhile, BMW's factory in Eisenach fell in the Soviet occupation zone and the Soviets restarted production of pre-war BMW motorcycles and automobiles there. This continued until 1955, after which they concentrated on cars based on pre-war DKW designs. BMW began building cars in Bavaria in 1952 with the BMW 501 luxury saloon. Sales of their luxury saloons were too small to be profitable, so BMW supplemented this with building Isettas under licence. Slow sales of luxury cars and small profit margins from microcars caused the BMW board to consider selling the operation to Daimler-Benz. However, Herbert Quandt was convinced to purchase a controlling interest in BMW and to invest in its future.
Quandt's investment, along with profits from the BMW 700, brought about the BMW New Class and BMW New Six. These new products, along with the absorption of Hans Glas GmbH, gave BMW a sure footing on which to expand. BMW grew in strength, eventually acquiring the Rover Group (most of which was later divested), and the license to build automobiles under the Rolls-Royce marque.
History of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFw)
Gustav Otto Flugmaschinenfabrik
Helios motorcycle built by BFw before the merger with BMW. The M2B15 engine was supplied by BMW
Advertisement for BFw in 1916
Origin and history of BMW to the end of World War I
In 1913, Karl Rapp established Rapp Motorenwerke near the Oberwiesenfeld. Rapp had chosen the site because it was close to Gustav Otto Flugmaschinenfabrik, with whom he had contracts to supply his four-cylinder aircraft engines.
Rapp was sub-contracted by Austro-Daimler to manufacture their V12 aircraft engines. Austro-Daimler at the time was unable to meet its own demands to build V12 Aero engines. The officer supervising aero-engine building at Austro-Daimler on behalf of the Austrian government was Franz Josef Popp. When it was decided to produce Austro-Daimler engines at Rapp Motorenwerke, Popp was delegated to Munich from Vienna to supervise engine quality.
Popp did not restrict himself to the role of observer, becoming actively involved in the overall management of the company. On 7 March 1916, Rapp Motorenwerke became Bayerische Motoren Werke GmbH.
Bayerische Motoren Werke GmbH 1917
BMW IIIa engine
For the small BMW business, the large orders received from the Reichswehr for the BMW IIIa engine were overwhelming. Under Karl Rapp, only a small number of engines had been produced and the manufacturing facilities were not in any way adequate to handle the mass production now required. Not only did BMW lack suitable machine tools but, to a very large degree, skilled manpower as well. However, the most serious drawback was in the small and aging workshops. Nevertheless, under the state-controlled war economy, officials in the relevant ministries were able to give BMW extensive practical support. So in a short time BMW got the skilled workers and machinery it needed. In addition, the Munich company received a high level of financial assistance, which enabled it to build a completely new factory from the ground up, in the immediate vicinity of the old workshops. Due to the share capital being too small, both the building of the new plant and the working capital needed for materials and wages had to be financed with external funds, i.e. bank loans or state assistance. The war ministries of Bavaria and Prussia (then both separate kingdoms within the Kaiser’s Empire) did not, however, wish to go on supporting BMW with loans and guarantees, and therefore urged the flotation of a public limited company.
BMW roundel on a 1939 BMW motorcycle
The name-change to Bayerische Motoren Werke compelled management to devise a new logo for the company, therefore the famous BMW trademark is designed and patented at this time. However, they remained true to the imagery of the previous Rapp Motorenwerke emblem (which was designed by Karl's brother, Ottmar Rapp). Thus, both the old and the new logo were built up in the same way: the company name was placed in a black circle, which was once again given a pictorial form by placing a symbol within it. By analogy with this, the blue and white panels of the Bavarian national flag were placed at the center of the BMW logo. Not until the late 1920s was the logo lent a new interpretation as representing a rotating propeller.
In 1917, Karl Rapp's son-in-law, Max Wiedmann, held about 80 percent of the shares in Rapp Motorenwerke. He had obtained most of these shares from his father-in- law in 1914 and had thus become a figure of great influence in the business. Even after the name-change to Bayerische Motoren Werke GmbH, Wiedmann remained the principal shareholder in the company. Wiedmann’s capitulation in July 1918 opened the way for the founding of a public limited company. On 13 August 1918, BMW AG was entered as a new company in the Commercial Register and took over from BMW GmbH all its manufacturing assets, order book and workforce. The old BMW GmbH was renamed "Maschinenwerke Schleißheimerstrasse" and was wound up on 12 November 1918. The share capital of BMW AG amounting to 12 million reichsmarks was subscribed by three groups of investors. One third of the shares was taken up in equal parts by the Bayerische Bank and the Norddeutsche Bank. A further third of the shares (worth 4 million reichsmarks) was acquired by the Nuremberg industrialist, Fritz Neumeyer. This ensured that 50 percent of the capital (6 million reichsmarks) was in the hands of Bavarian businesses or banks. The Bavarian government placed the highest value on this strong local shareholding. The final one-third of the BMW shares were taken up by a Viennese financier, Camillo Castiglioni.
First crisis for BMW AG – WWI aftermath
Winter 1918 factory closure
In order to enable companies to resume civil production as rapidly as possible, a central demobilization office was set up as soon as the war was over, and branches opened right across Germany. The Commissioner for Demobilization with responsibility for Bavaria ordered the closure of BMW’s Munich plant with effect from 6 December 1918.
Return of Castiglioni and merger with BFw
On 20 May 1922, Castiglioni bought the BMW name and engine-building business from Knorr-Bremse for 75 million reichsmarks. The remainder of the company became a subsidiary of Knorr-Bremse and was renamed Süddeutsche Bremse AG.
Castiglioni did not purchase BMW's premises in his transaction with Knorr-Bremse. Instead, he merged his Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFw) into BMW and established BMW's factory and headquarters at BFw's premises. BMW was moved into the same buildings of Gustav Otto's former Otto-Flugzeugwerke on Lerchenauer Strasse 76. BMW's headquarters have been at that address ever since.
Austin-licensed BMW Dixi
BMW's first automobile, the BMW Dixi
In 1928, BMW bought the Eisenach-based Dixi Automobil Werke AG from Gothaer Waggonfabrik. Dixi's sole product at the time of the purchase was the 3/15 PS, a licensed copy of the Austin 7, production of which had begun in 1927. The Dixi 3/15 became the BMW 3/15, BMW's first production car, upon the absorption of Dixi Werke into BMW.
BMW designs its own cars
Towards the end of 1930, BMW attempted to introduce a new front axle with independent wheel suspension for both their models, the BMW 'Dixi' 3/15 DA4 and BMW 'Wartburg' DA3, but this resulted in accidents with the prototypes because of construction faults.
In 1933, BMW introduced the 303. Larger and more conventional than the AM-series 3/20, the 303 used BMW's new M78 engine, making it the first BMW automobile to use a straight-six engine. The 303 was also the first BMW to use the "kidney grille" that would become a characteristic of BMW styling. The 303 formed the basis for the four-cylinder 309 and the larger-engined 315 and 319, while the 303 chassis supported the 315/1 and 319/1 roadsters and the restyled 329.
The 303 platform was supplemented and later supplanted by the 326, a larger car with a more rigid frame. Introduced in 1936, the 326 was BMW's first four-door sedan. A shortened version of the 326 frame was used in the 320, which replaced the 303-framed 329, in the 321, which replaced the 320, and in the 327 coupé.
The 328 replaced the 315/1 and 319/1 roadsters in 1936. Unlike the 303-based 315/1 and 319/1, the 328 had a purpose-built frame. While the 315/1 and 319/1 had M78 engines in a higher state of tune than in the respective 315 and 319 sedans, the 328's M328 engine had a specially-designed hemispheric cylinder head and other modifications that brought its power to 80 PS (59 kW). From its introduction at the Eifelrennen race at the Nürburgring in 1936, where Ernst Henne drove it to win the 2.0 litre class, to the overall victory of Fritz Huschke von Hanstein at the 1940 Brescia Grand Prix during World War II, the 328 was a legendary performer, with more than 100 class wins in 1937 alone.
An extended version of the 326's frame was used in the 335, a luxury car with the 3.5 litre M335 engine. The 335 was built from 1939 to 1941.
World War II
BMW 801 radial engine
The German invasion of Poland and commencement of hostilities meant that manufacturing facilities in Germany were directed by the Nazi regime to re-focus on the manufacture of products required to support the war effort. In 1939, BMW bought Spandau-based Brandenburgische Motorenwerke, also known as Bramo, from the Siemens group of companies and merged it with its aircraft engine division under the name BMW Flugmotorenbau GmbH. A new factory at Allach, outside Munich, began production of aircraft engines later that year.
BMW R75 military sidecar outfit
BMW 003 jet engine
A wide range of aero engines was ultimately produced for the Luftwaffe, including one of the most powerful engines of the time – the BMW 801. Over 30,000 aero engines were manufactured through 1945, as well as over 500 jet engines such as the BMW 003. To enable this massive production effort, forced labor was utilized, consisting primarily of prisoners from concentration camps such as Dachau. By the end of the war, almost 50% of the 50,000-person workforce at BMW AG consisted of prisoners from concentration camps. BMW also developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe towards the last phase of the Third Reich, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
Second crisis for BMW AG – WWII aftermath
BMW AG was heavily bombed towards the end of the war, reducing most of the company's production facilities to rubble. In fact, by the end of the war, the Munich plant was completely destroyed. BMW sites in eastern Germany (Eisenach-Dürrerhof, Wandlitz-Basdorf and Zühlsdorf) were seized by the Soviets.
After the war the Munich factory took some time to restart production in any volume. BMW was banned from manufacturing motor vehicles by the Allies. During this ban, BMW used basic secondhand and salvaged equipment to make pots and pans, later expanding to other kitchen supplies and bicycles. Permission to manufacture motorcycles was granted to BMW by United States authorities in 1947, and production of the R24 began in 1948.
East German 340 with BMW badge
In the east, the company's factory at Eisenach was taken over by the Soviet Awtowelo group. Production of the R35 motorcycle was restarted in 1945, with the 321 automobile following late that year. A mildly revised 327 entered production in 1948, followed by the 326-based 340 in 1949. These were sold under the BMW name with the BMW logo affixed to them. To protect its trademarks, BMW AG legally severed its Eisenach branch from the company. Awtowelo continued production of the 327 and 340 under the Eisenacher Motorenwerk (EMW) brand with a red and white version of the logo until 1955.
1948 Bristol 400 with double-kidney grille
In the west, the Bristol Aeroplane Company (BAC) inspected the factory, and returned to Britain with plans for the 327 model and the six-cylinder engine as official war reparations. Bristol then employed BMW engineer Fritz Fiedler to lead their engine development team. In 1947, the newly formed Bristol Cars released their 400 coupé, a lengthened version of the BMW 327. that featured BMW's double-kidney grille.
While Alfred Böning had returned to BMW and developed the R24 and Fritz Fiedler had gone to work for Bristol, Alex von Falkenhausen and Ernst Loof had each started companies that built sports cars and racing cars. Von Falkenhausen started Alex von Falkenhausen Motorenbau (AFM), while Loof, in partnership with Georg Meier and Lorenz Dietrich, started Veritas. AFM and Veritas both competed in Formula 2, but both companies had shut down operations by 1954, when both von Falkenhausen and Loof went back to BMW.
Three approaches to car manufacture
1951 BMW 331 prototype
By the end of the 1940s BMW had returned to motorcycle manufacture but still had not restarted automobile manufacture. Kurt Donath, technical director of BMW and general manager of the Milbertshofen factory, solicited manufacturers, including Ford and Simca, to produce their vehicles under licence. In particular, Donath was looking to produce old models under licence, so that he could buy tooling along with the licence.
While Donath was trying to find a car to build under licence, chief engineer Alfred Böning developed a prototype for a small economy car powered by a motorcycle engine. Called the BMW 331, the prototype used a 600 cc motorcycle engine, a four-speed gearbox, and a live rear axle. The body was designed by Peter Schimanowski and resembled a BMW 327 in miniature.
1954 BMW 502 V8 Super
The BMW 331 was proposed for production to the management, where it was vetoed by sales director Hanns Grewenig. Grewenig, a banker and former Opel plant manager, believed that BMW's small production capacity was best suited to luxury cars with high profit margins, similar to the cars BMW made just before the war. To this end, he had Böning and his team design the 501.
When the 501 was introduced in 1951, its cost of approximately DM15,000 was about four times the average German's earnings. It was also much heavier than expected and underpowered with a development of BMW's pre-war two litre six. Delays in receiving and setting up equipment caused production of the 501 to be delayed until late 1952, with body construction, originally expected to be done in-house, being done by Karosserie Baur in Stuttgart for more than a year.
In 1954, the 501 was given an improved, more powerful version of its six-cylinder engine and split into two models, the 501A at basically the same trim level and a price reduction of DM1,000, and a decontented 501B at a further price reduction of DM1,000 below the 501A's price. In addition, the 502, basically a 501 with an even higher trim level and a 2.6 L aluminium V8 engine designed by Bőning and Fiedler, was introduced to lead BMW's luxury sedan range. The expanded line for 1954 doubled the sales of BMW's luxury cars.
1956 BMW 507
Influenced by the public response to the introduction of Mercedes-Benz's 300SL and 190SL show cars at the International Motor Sports Auto Show in New York in February 1954, the management of BMW approved Grewenig's proposal to build a sports car based on the 502. Preliminary design sketches were seen by U.S. importer Max Hoffman, who suggested to industrial designer Albrecht von Goertz that he should submit design proposals to BMW's management as an alternative. Based on these proposals, BMW contracted the design of the sports car and a four-seat grand tourer to von Goertz in November 1954. The 507 roadster was introduced at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York in the summer of 1955, while the 503 four-seater was introduced in September of that year at the Frankfurt Motor Show.
Hoffman told BMW that he would order 2000 507s if he could sell them for US$5,000 each. When the selling price was given as about twice that, and higher than the 300SL, he withdrew his offer. 412 units of the 503 and 253 of the 507 were built during their production runs from 1956 (May for the 503, November for the 507) to March 1959.
BMW Isetta Moto Coupe
Motorcycles were BMW's largest money earner at the time, and their sales had peaked in 1954. Germans were turning away from mopeds and motorcycles toward light automobiles such as the Messerschmitt and the Goggomobil. Eberhard Wolff, BMW's head of automotive development, saw the Iso Rivolta Isetta bubble car at the 1954 Geneva Motor Show and suggested to his managers the possibility of building the Isetta under licence. BMW entered talks with Iso Rivolta and bought both a licence to manufacture the Isetta and all the tooling needed to manufacture its body. Production of BMW's version of the Isetta began in 1955; more than ten thousand Isettas were sold that year. BMW made more than a hundred thousand Isettas by the end of 1958, and a total of 161,728 by the end of production in 1962.
BMW knew that it needed a four-seat family car to keep up with the rising wealth and expectations of the German people, but it could not access funding to develop a new car for this market. They therefore developed the 600, a four-seat car based on the Isetta. The 600 used the front suspension, the front seats, and the front-mounted door from the Isetta, but used a new, longer ladder frame with a longer, four-seat body, a rear-mounted 0.6 L flat-twin motorcycle engine, and a full-width rear track. The 600's rear suspension was BMW's first use of the semi-trailing arm system that would be used on their sedans and coupes until the 1990s. Released in 1957, the 600 could not compete against the larger, more powerful Volkswagen Beetle. Production ended in 1959 after fewer than 35,000 were built.
Third crisis for BMW AG – a company for sale
By 1959, BMW was in debt and losing money. The Isetta was selling well but with small profit margins. Their 501-based luxury sedans were not selling well enough to be profitable and were becoming increasingly outdated. Their 503 coupé and 507 roadster were too expensive to be profitable. Their 600, a four-seater based on the Isetta, was selling poorly. The motorcycle market imploded in the mid-1950s with increased affluence turning Germans away from motorcycles and toward cars. BMW had sold their Allach plant to MAN in 1954.American Motors and the Rootes Group had both tried to acquire BMW.
At BMW's annual general meeting on 9 December 1959, Dr. Hans Feith, chairman of BMW's supervisory board, proposed a merger with Daimler-Benz. The dealers and small shareholders opposed this suggestion and rallied around a counter-proposal by Dr. Friedrich Mathern, which gained enough support to stop the merger. At that time, the Quandt Group, led by half-brothers Herbert and Harald Quandt, had recently increased their holdings in BMW and had become their largest shareholder. By the end of November 1960, the Quandts owned two-thirds of BMW's stock between them.
By this time BMW had launched the 700, a small car with an air-cooled, rear-mounted 697 cc boxer engine derived from the engine powering the R67 motorcycle. It was available as a 2-door sedan and as a coupe, both versions having been designed by Giovanni Michelotti. There was also a more powerful RS model for racing.
At the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1961, BMW launched the 1500, a compact sedan with front disc brakes and four-wheel independent suspension. This modern specification further cemented BMW's reputation for sporting cars. It was the first BMW to officially feature the "Hofmeister kink", the rear window line that has been the hallmark of all BMWs since then.
The "New Class" 1500 was developed into 1600 and 1800 models. In 1966, the two-door version of the 1600 was launched, along with a convertible in 1967. These models began the '02' series, of which the 2002 was the best known, and which was continued until 1976 when it was replaced by the BMW 3 Series.
By 1963, with the company back on its feet, BMW offered dividends to its shareholders for the first time since World War II.
München, BMW Autowerk, 1968
The Rover 75, the only new Rover released under BMW
Between 1994 and 2001, under the leadership of Bernd Pischetsrieder, BMW owned the British Rover Group, having bought it from British Aerospace. This brought the active Rover, Mini and Land Rover brands as well as rights to many dormant marques such as Austin, Morris, Riley, Triumph and Wolseley under BMW ownership.
The venture was not successful. Already struggling after years of industrial disputes, Rover had a poor reputation but in trying to improve its image it would become a rival to the BMW market segment. BMW found it difficult to reposition the English automaker alongside its own products and the Rover division was faced with endless changes in its marketing strategy. In the six years under BMW, Rover was positioned as a premium automaker, a mass-market automaker, a division of BMW and an independent unit. A five-part BBC documentary, When Rover Met BMW (1996), gave some insight into the difficulties faced by the two firms.
It is possible that some development work on the Rover R30 model may have eventually benefitted the BMW 1 Series.
Controversial BMW 7 Series (E65) "Bangle butt"
Production outside Germany
BMW signed an agreement in 1999 with Avtotor to produce cars in Kaliningrad, Russia. The Factory has been assembling 3 and 5 -series cars.
Starting from October 2004, BMWs intended for the Chinese market are produced in Shenyang, China. BMW has established a joint venture with Chinese manufacturer Brilliance to build BMW 3 Series and 5 Series that have been modified for the needs of local markets.
The BMW X3 was manufactured in Graz, Austria between 2004 and 2007 by Magna Steyr with mainly German components. The X3 production will be moved to the Spartanburg plant due in part to high production and transportation costs of what was meant to be the "more affordable" SUV. North American pricing, after said costs, were nearly on par with the larger, American-built X5.
In 2005, BMW Group built a new manufacturing facility in Egypt. This plant builds 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series, and X3 vehicles for the African and Middle East markets.
BMW opened its first assembly plant in Chennai, India in March 2007 to assemble 3-series and 5-series vehicles. The 20 Million Euro plant aims to produce 1,700 cars per year in, unveiled on January 2, 2003, and officially launched at the Detroit Auto Show on January 5, 2003. The model, priced around US$330,000, has experienced record sales worldwide of 796 Phantoms sold in 2005. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars, BMW's subsidiary manufacturing Rolls-Royces, has since launched the Rolls-Royce Ghost.
BMW was established as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft manufacturing firm in 1912 named Aerowerke Gustav Otto. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft-engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to motorcycle production as the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted in 1923, followed by automobiles in 1928–29.
The first car which BMW successfully produced and the car which launched BMW on the road to automobile production was the Dixi, based on the Austin 7 and licensed from the Austin Motor Company in Birmingham, England.
BMW's first significant aircraft engine, and commercial product of any sort, was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, known for good fuel economy and high-altitude performance. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe. The factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour: foreign civilians, prisoners of war and inmates of the concentration camp Dachau . Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, and the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944–1945–era jet-powered "emergency fighter", the Heinkel He 162 Spatz. The BMW 003 jet engine was first tested as a prime power plant in the first prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the Me 262 V1, but in 1942 tests the BMW prototype engines failed on takeoff with only the standby Junkers Jumo 210 nose-mounted piston engine powering it to a safe landing. The few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h (497 mph). The first-ever four-engine jet aircraft ever flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber, which used BMW 003 jets for power. Through 1944 the 003's reliability improved, making it a suitable power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramm's light fighter production contract. which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design. The BMW 003 aviation turbojet was also under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT 101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
By the year 1958, the automotive division of BMW was in financial difficulties and a shareholders meeting was held to decide whether to go into liquidation or find an alternative. It was decided to carry on by trying to cash in on the current economy car boom exploited so successfully by German ex-aircraft manufacturers such as Messerschmitt and Heinkel. BMW bought the rights to manufacture the Italian Iso Isetta. BMW's version of the tiny cars were to be powered by a modified form of BMW's motorcycle engine. This was moderately successful and helped the company get back on its feet.
Since 1959, the controlling majority shareholder of the BMW Aktiengesellschaft has been the Quandt family, which owns about 46% of the stock. The rest is in public float.
BMW acquired the Hans Glas company based in Dingolfing, Germany, in 1966. Glas vehicles were briefly badged as BMW until the company was fully absorbed. It was reputed that the acquisition was mainly to gain access to Glas' development of the timing belt with an overhead camshaft in automotive applications, although some saw Glas' Dingolfing plant as another incentive. However, this factory was outmoded and BMW's biggest immediate gain was, according to themselves, a stock of highly qualified engineers and other personnel. The Glas factories continued to build a limited number of their existing models, while adding the manufacture of BMW front and rear axles until they could be closer incorporated into BMW.
In 1992, BMW acquired a large stake in California-based industrial design studio DesignworksUSA, which they fully acquired in 1995. In 1994, BMW bought the British Rover Group (which at the time consisted of the Rover, Land Rover and MG brands as well as the rights to defunct brands including Austin and Morris), and owned it for six years. By 2000, Rover was incurring huge losses and BMW decided to sell the combine. The MG and Rover brands were sold to the Phoenix Consortium to form MG Rover, while Land Rover was taken over by Ford. BMW, meanwhile, retained the rights to build the new Mini, which was launched in 2001.
Chief designer Chris Bangle announced his departure from BMW in February 2009, after serving on the design team for nearly seventeen years. He was replaced by Adrian van Hooydonk, Bangle's former right-hand man. Bangle was known for his radical designs such as the 2002 7-Series and the 2002 Z4. In July 2007, the production rights for Husqvarna Motorcycles was purchased by BMW for a reported 93 million euros. BMW Motorrad plans to continue operating Husqvarna Motorcycles as a separate enterprise. All development, sales and production activities, as well as the current workforce, have remained in place at its present location at Varese.
In June 2012, BMW was listed as the #1 most reputable company in the world by Forbes.com. Rankings are based upon aspects such as "people's willingness to buy, recommend, work for, and invest in a company is driven 60% by their perceptions of the company and only 40% by their perceptions of their products."
- Strategic investors: 46.7%
- Institutional investors: 39.7%
- North America: 13.6%
- United Kingdom and Ireland: 7.7%
- Other Europe: 12.1%
- Germany: 3.5%
- Rest of the world: 3.0%
- Other investors: 13.6%
In 2006, the BMW group (including Mini and Rolls-Royce) produced 1,366,838 four-wheeled vehicles, which were manufactured in five countries. In 2010, it manufactured 1,481,253 four-wheeled vehicles and 112,271 motorcycles (under both the BMW and Husqvarna brands).
The BMW X3 (E83) was made by Magna Steyr, a subsidiary of Magna International, in Graz, Austria under license from BMW until 2010. More than 45,973 were produced in 2009. Starting October 2010, the new BMW X3 (F25) is produced at BMW US Manufacturing Company, Greer, South Carolina.
By 2011, about 56% of BMW-brand vehicles produced are powered by petrol engines and the remaining 44% are powered by diesel engines. Of those petrol vehicles, about 27% are four-cylinder models and about nine percent are eight-cylinder models. BMW also has local assembly operation using complete knock down components in Thailand, Russia, Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia, and India, for 3, 5, 7 series and X3. On average, 9,000 vehicles per day exit BMW plants, and 63% are transported by rail.
Vehicles sold in all markets according to BMW's annual reports.
Since 2008, motorcycle productions and sales figures include Husqvarna models.Excluding Husqvarna, sales volume up to 2013: 59,776 units.
BMW sells vehicles in China through "more than 440 BMW sales outlets and 100 Mini stores," delivering 415,200 units to this network between January and November 2014.
BMW began production of motorcycle engines and then motorcycles after World War I. Its motorcycle brand is now known as BMW Motorrad. Their first successful motorcycle after the failed Helios and Flink, was the "R32" in 1923, though production originally began in 1921. This had a "boxer" twin engine, in which a cylinder projects into the air-flow from each side of the machine. Apart from their single-cylinder models (basically to the same pattern), all their motorcycles used this distinctive layout until the early 1980s. Many BMW's are still produced in this layout, which is designated the R Series.
During the Second World War, BMW produced the BMW R75 motorcycle with a sidecar attached. Having a unique design copied from the Zündapp KS750, its sidecar wheel was also motor-driven. Combined with a lockable differential, this made the vehicle very capable off-road, an equivalent in many ways to the Jeep.
In 1982, came the K Series, shaft drive but water-cooled and with either three or four cylinders mounted in a straight line from front to back. Shortly after, BMW also started making the chain-driven F and G series with single and parallel twin Rotax engines.
In the early 1990s, BMW updated the airhead Boxer engine which became known as the oilhead. In 2002, the oilhead engine had two spark plugs per cylinder. In 2004 it added a built-in balance shaft, an increased capacity to 1,170 cc and enhanced performance to 100 hp (75 kW) for the R1200GS, compared to 85 hp (63 kW) of the previous R1150GS. More powerful variants of the oilhead engines are available in the R1100S and R1200S, producing 98 and 122 hp (73 and 91 kW), respectively.
In 2004, BMW introduced the new K1200S Sports Bike which marked a departure for BMW. It had an engine producing 167 hp (125 kW), derived from the company's work with the Williams F1 team, and is lighter than previous K models. Innovations include electronically adjustable front and rear suspension, and a Hossack-type front fork that BMW calls Duolever.
BMW introduced anti-lock brakes on production motorcycles starting in the late 1980s. The generation of anti-lock brakes available on the 2006 and later BMW motorcycles pave the way for the introduction of electronic stability control, or anti-skid technology later in the 2007 model year.
BMW has been an innovator in motorcycle suspension design, taking up telescopic front suspension long before most other manufacturers. Then they switched to an Earles fork, front suspension by swinging fork (1955 to 1969). Most modern BMWs are truly rear swingarm, single sided at the back (compare with the regular swinging fork usually, and wrongly, called swinging arm). Some BMWs started using yet another trademark front suspension design, the Telelever, in the early 1990s. Like the Earles fork, the Telelever significantly reduces dive under braking.
BMW Group, on 31 January 2013 announced that Pierer Industrie AG has bought Husqvarna for an undisclosed amount, which will not be revealed by either party in the future. The company is headed by Stephan Pierer (CEO of KTM). Pierer Industrie AG is 51% owner of KTM and 100% owner of Husqvarna.
The New Class (German: Neue Klasse) was a line of compact sedans and coupes starting with the 1962 1500 and continuing through the last 2002s in 1977. Powered by BMW's celebrated four-cylinder M10 engine, the New Class models had a fully independent suspension, MacPherson struts in front, and front disc brakes. Initially a family of four-door sedans and two-door coupes, the New Class line was broadened to two-door sports sedans with the addition of the 02 Series 1600 and 2002 in 1966.
Sharing little in common with the rest of the line beyond power train, the sporty siblings caught auto enthusiasts' attention and established BMW as an international brand. Precursors to the famed BMW 3 Series, the two-doors' success cemented the firm's future as an upper tier performance car maker. New Class four-doors with numbers ending in "0" were replaced by the larger BMW 5 Series in 1972. The upscale 2000C and 2000CS coupes were replaced by the six-cylinder BMW E9, introduced in 1969 with the 2800CS. The 1600 two-door was discontinued in 1975, and the 2002 was replaced by the 320i in 1975..
The 1 Series, originally launched in 2004, is BMW's smallest car. Currently available are the second generation hatchback (F20/F21) and its two-door counterparts, the 2 Series coupe and convertible (F22/F23). The 3 Series, a compact executive car manufactured since model year 1975, is currently in its sixth generation (F30); models include the sports sedan (F30), the fourth generation station wagon (F31) and the Gran Turismo. Starting with the current generation, the 3 Series coupe and convertible are now branded as 4 Series models (F32 and F33 respectively). The 5 Series is a mid-size luxury car, available in sedan (F10) and station wagon (F11) forms. The 5 Series Gran Turismo (F07), which debuted in 2010, created a segment between station wagons and crossover SUV.
BMW's full-size flagship executive sedan is the 7 Series. Typically, BMW introduces many of their innovations in the 7 Series, such as the iDrive system. The latest generation (G11) debuted in 2015. Based on the 5 Series' platform, the 6 Series is BMW's grand touring luxury sport coupe/convertible (F12/F13). A 2-seater roadster and coupe which succeeded the Z3, the Z4 has been sold since 2002.
The X3 (F25), BMW's second crossover SUV (called SAV or "Sports Activity Vehicle" by BMW) debuted in 2010 and replaced the X3 (E83)-), which was based on the E46 3 Series' platform, and had been in production since 2003. Marketed in Europe as an off roader, it benefits from BMW's xDrive all-wheel drive system. The all-wheel drive X5 (E53) was BMW's first crossover SUV (SAV), based on the 5-Series, and is a mid-size luxury SUV sold by BMW since 2000. A 4-seat crossover SUV released by BMW in December 2007, the X6 is marketed as a "Sports Activity Coupe" (SAC) by BMW. The X1 is now in its second generation and extends the BMW X-lineup.
- 1 Series (F20) (2011–present) 5-door Hatchback
- 1 Series (F21) (2011–present) 3-door Hatchback
- 2 Series (F22) (2014–present) Coupe and convertible
- 2 Series Active Tourer (F45) (2014–present) Compact MPV
- 3 Series (F30) (2012–present) Sedan, wagon, Gran Coupe
- 4 Series (F32/F33/F36) (2014–present) Coupe and convertible
- 5 Series (G30) (2017–present) Sedan and wagon
- 6 Series (F12) (2010–present) Coupe, convertible, Gran Coupe
- 7 Series (G11) (2016–present) Sedan, coupe
- 3 Series Gran Turismo (2013–present) Progressive Activity Sedan
- 5 Series Gran Turismo (2009–present) Progressive Activity Sedan
- BMW i3 (2013–present) all-electric car
- BMW i8 (2014–present) plug-in hybrid sports car
- X1 (F48) (2016–present) Compact Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV)
- X3 (F25) (2010–present) Compact Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV)
- X4 (F26) (2014–present) Sports Activity Coupe
- X5 (F15) (2014–present) Mid-Size Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV)
- X6 (F16) (2014–present) Sports Activity Coupe
- Z4 (E89) (2009–2016) Sports Roadster
Plug-in electric models
The BMW i is a sub-brand of BMW founded in 2011 to design and manufacture plug-in electric vehicles. The sub-brand initial plans called for the release of two vehicles; series production of the BMW i3 all-electric car began in September 2013, and the market launch took place in November 2013 with the first retail deliveries in Germany. The BMW i8 sports plug-in hybrid car was launched in Germany in June 2014. Combined sales of the BMW i brand models reached the 50,000 unit milestone in January 2016. Two years after its introduction, the BMW i3 ranked as the world's third best selling all-electric car in history. Global sales of the BMW i3 achieved the 50,000 unit milestone in July 2016.
In February 2016, BMW announced the introduction of the "iPerformance" model designation, which will be given to all BMW plug-in hybrid vehicles from July 2016. The aim is to provide a visible indicator of the transfer of technology from BMW i to the BMW core brand. The new designation will be used first on the plug-in hybrid variants of the latest BMW 7 Series. Global sales of all BMW plug-in electrified models achieved the 100,000 unit milestone in early November 2016, consisting of more than 60,000 BMW i3s, over 10,000 BMW i8s, and about 30,000 from combined sales of all BMW iPerformance plug-in hybrid models.
As of November 2016[update], four BMW electrified models have been released, the BMW X5 xDrive40e iPerformance, BMW 225xe iPerformance Active Tourer, BMW 330e iPerformance, and the BMW 740e iPerformance. The BMW 530e iPerformance is scheduled to be released in Europe March 2017 as part of the upcoming seventh generation BMW 5 Series lineup. In November 2016, BMW announced the company expected to deliver 60,000 of its electrified i and iPerformance models in 2016, and a sales target of 100,000 units for 2017. BMW set the goal to expand the share of its electrified models to between 15% and 25% of sales by 2025, when batteries have doubled their capacity.
In 2015, BMW in cooperation with SCHERM Group has started deploying electric trucks on European roads, making it the first company to ever do so. The truck itself is manufactured by the Terberg Group, one of the world's largest independent specialist vehicle suppliers.
BMW produce a number of high-performance derivatives of their cars developed by their BMW M GmbH (previously BMW Motorsport GmbH) subsidiary.
The current M models are:
- M2 – F87 Coupé (2015 to present)
- M3 – F80 Sedan (2013 to present)
- M4 – F82 Coupé/F83 Convertible (2014 to present)
- M5 – F10 Saloon (2011 to present)
- M6 – F06 Gran Coupé/F12 Convertible/F13 Coupé (2012 to present)
- X5 M – F15 SAV (2014 to present)
- X6 M – F16 SAV (2014 to present)
BMW has been engaged in motorsport activities since the dawn of the first BMW motorcycle in 1923.
- Formula BMW – A Junior racing Formula category.
- Kumho BMW Championship – A BMW-exclusive championship run in the United Kingdom.
- Isle of Man TT – Georg 'Schorsch' Meier won the 1939 running of the Grand Prix. Michael Dunlop won both the 2014 Senior and Superbike races on a 2014 BMW S1000RR. Dunlop again took victory in the 2016 Superbike TT during the process of which he also set a new outright lap record for the Snaefell Mountain Course at 130.306 mph.
- Dakar Rally – BMW motorcycles have won the Dakar rally six times. In 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1999, and 2000.
- Superbike World Championship – BMW returned to premier road racing in 2009 with their all new superbike, the BMW S1000RR.
Formula One – F1
BMW has a history of success in Formula One. BMW powered cars have won 20 races. In 2006 BMW took over the Sauber team and became Formula One constructors. In 2007 and 2008 the team enjoyed some success. The most recent win is a lone constructor team's victory by BMW Sauber F1 Team, on 8 June 2008, at the Canadian Grand Prix with Robert Kubica driving. Achievements include:
- Driver championship: 1 (1983)
- Constructor championship: 0 (Runner-up 2002, 2003, 2007)
- Fastest laps: 33
- Grand Prix wins: 20
- Podium finishes: 76
- Pole positions: 33
BMW was an engine supplier to Williams, Benetton, Brabham, and Arrows. Notable drivers who have started their Formula One careers with BMW include Jenson Button, Juan Pablo Montoya, Robert Kubica, and Sebastian Vettel.
In July 2009, BMW announced that it would withdraw from Formula One at the end of the 2009 season. The team was sold back to the previous owner, Peter Sauber, who kept the BMW part of the name for the 2010 season due to issues with the Concorde Agreement. The team has since dropped BMW from their name starting in 2011.
- Le Mans 24 Hours – BMW won Le Mans in 1999 with the BMW V12 LMR designed by Williams Grand Prix Engineering. Also the Kokusai Kaihatsu Racing team won the 1995 edition with a BMW-engined McLaren F1 GTR race car.
- Nürburgring – BMW won the 24 Hours Nürburgring 19 times and the 1000km Nürburgring twice (1976 and 1981).
- 24 Hours of Daytona – BMW won three times (1976, 2011, 2013)
- Spa 24 Hours – BMW won 21 times
- A BMW works team E36 320d was the first diesel-powered overall winner ever at the 24 Hours Nürburgring.
- McLaren F1 GTR – Successful mid-1990s GT racing car with a BMW designed engine. It won the BPR Global GT Series in 1995 and 1996 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1995.
- American Le Mans Series – BMW has won three (2001, 2010, 2011) GT Team Championships and GT Automobile Manufacturer titles. Twice (2010, 2011) with Team RLL in the Crowne Plaza V8 powered M3 GT coupe and once (2001) with the BMW Motorsport team in the V8 powered M3 GTR.
BMW has a long and successful history in touring car racing.
- British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) – BMW won the drivers' championship in 1988, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and manufacturers' championship in 1991 and 1993.
- The DRM (Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft) was won by Harald Ertl in a BMW 320i Turbo in 1978
- DTM (Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft) – the following won the DTM drivers' championship driving BMWs:
- 1987: Eric van der Poele, BMW M3
- 1989: Roberto Ravaglia, BMW M3
- 2012: Bruno Spengler, BMW M3 DTM
- European Touring Car Championship (ETCC) – Since 1968, BMW won 24 drivers' championships along with several manufacturers' and teams' titles.
- Japanese Touring Car Championship (JTCC) – BMW (Schnitzer) flew from Europe to Japan to compete in the JTCC and won the championship in 1995.
- Mille Miglia – BMW won the 1940 Brescia Grand Prix with a 328 Touring Coupé. Previously in 1938 the 328 sport car won the Mille Miglia 2000 litre class.
- SCCA Pro Racing World Challenge Touring Car Series(WC) – BMW won the manufacturer's championship in 2001 and Bill Auberlen, driving a Turner Motorsport BMW 325i, won the 2003 and 2004 Driver's Championships.
- World Touring Car Championship (WTCC) – BMW won four drivers' championship (1987, 2005, 2006 and 2007) and three manufacturers' titles (2005–2007).
BMW announced on 15 October 2010 that it will return to touring car racing during the 2012 season. Dr. Klaus Draeger, director of research and development of the BMW Group, who was in charge of the return to DTM racing (Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters), commented that "The return of BMW to the DTM is a fundamental part of the restructuring of our motorsport activities. With its increased commitment to production car racing, BMW is returning to its roots. The race track is the perfect place to demonstrate the impressive sporting characteristics of our vehicles against our core competitors in a high-powered environment. The DTM is the ideal stage on which to do this."
- RAC Rally – The 328 sport car won this event in 1939.
- Paris Dakar Rally – BMW motorcycles have won this event 6 times total including 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1999, 2000.
- Tour de Corse – The BMW M3 – E30 won this event in 1987.
BMW has signed deals to license Toyota technology in the areas of diesel engines, lithium batteries, and hydrogen fuel cells.
BMW Connected Drive
BMW ConnectedDrive provides services and apps controlled through the vehicle's on-board computer. BMW announced the rollout of additional ConnectedDrive functions based around telecommunications in 2014. The new services and apps were made available to Australian delivered cars built during the April/March period.
The ConnectedDrive update introduced real-time traffic data, concierge and a new emergency call system to work alongside BMW's existing driver assistance services.
In 2015, BMW Australia launched a customer portal that included integrated access to the new services and apps.
In football, BMW sponsors Bundesliga club Eintracht Frankfurt.
It was an official sponsor of the London 2012 olympics providing 4000 BMWs and Minis in a deal made in November 2009. The company also made a six-year sponsorship deal with the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) in July 2010.
BMW has sponsored various European golf events such as the PGA Championship at Wentworth, the BMW Italian Open and the BMW International Open in Germany.
In 2012, BMW Australia announced a 2-year sponsorship agreement with the Australian Film Institute's Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts (AACTA) Awards. As part of the agreement, BMW supplied a fleet of vehicles renowned for appearing in feature films. The vehicles supplied included a range of elegant BMW limousines, iconic BMW's of the past and the BMW 6 Series which featured in Mission Impossible 4: Ghost Protocol. The automotive company also sponsored the South African national Rugby team. The sponsorship was cancelled due to controversies on the Rugby team's part.
The company is a charter member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Environmental Achievement Track, which recognizes companies for their environmental stewardship and performance. It is also a member of the South Carolina Environmental Excellence Program.
In 2012, BMW was named the world's most sustainable automotive company for the eighth consecutive year by the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes. The BMW Group is the only automotive enterprise in the index since its inception in 1999. In 2001, the BMW Group committed itself to the United Nations Environment Programme, the UN Global Compact and the Cleaner Production Declaration. It was also the first company in the automotive industry to appoint an environmental officer, in 1973. BMW is a member of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
BMW is industry leader in the Carbon Disclosure Project's Global 500 ranking and 3rd place in Carbon Disclosure Leadership Index across all industries. BMW is listed in the FTSE4GoodIndex. The BMW Group was rated the most sustainable DAX 30 company by Sustainalytics in 2012.
BMW has taken measures to reduce the impact the company has on the environment. It is trying to design less-polluting cars by making existing models more efficient, as well as developing environmentally friendly fuels for future vehicles. Possibilities include: electric power, hybrid power (combustion engines and electric motors) hydrogen engines.
BMW offers 49 models with EU5/6 emissions norm and nearly 20 models with CO2 output less than 140 g/km, which puts it on the lowest tax group and therefore could provide the future owner with eco-bonus offered from some European countries.
However, there have been some criticisms directed at BMW, and in particular, accusations of greenwash in reference to their BMW Hydrogen 7. Some critics claim that the emissions produced during hydrogen fuel production outweigh the reduction of tailpipe emissions, and that the Hydrogen 7 is a distraction from more immediate, practical solutions for car pollution. The BBC's Jorn Madslien questioned whether the Hydrogen 7 was "a truly green initiative or merely a cynical marketing ploy"
BMW has created a range of high-end bicycles sold online and through dealerships. They range from the Kid's Bike to the EUR 4,499 Enduro Bike. In the United States, only the Cruise Bike and Kid's Bike models are sold.
BMW vehicles follow a certain nomenclature; usually a 3 digit number is followed by 1 or 2 letters. The first number represents the series number. The next two numbers traditionally represent the engine displacement in cubic centimeters divided by 100. However, more recent cars use those two numbers as a performance index, as e.g. the 116i, 118i and 120i (all 2,0L petrol-powered), just like the 325d and 330d (both 3,0L diesel) share the same motor block while adjusting engine power through setup and turbocharging. A similar nomenclature is used by BMW Motorrad for their motorcycles.
The system of letters can be used in combination, and is as follows:
- A = automatic transmission
- C = coupé, last used on the BMW E46 and the BMW E63 (dropped after 2005 model year)
- c = cabriolet
- d = diesel†
- e = eta (efficient economy, from the Greek letter 'η')
- g = compressed natural gas/CNG
- h = hydrogen
- i = fuel-injected
- L = long wheelbase
- M = Motorsport
- s = sport, also means "2 dr" on E36 model††
- sDrive = rear-wheel drive
- T = touring (wagon/estate)
- Ti = hatchback for the BMW 3 Series hatchback
- x / xDrive = BMW xDrive all-wheel drive
† historic nomenclature indicating "td" refers to "Turbo Diesel", not a diesel hatchback or touring model (524td, 525td)
†† typically includes sport seats, spoiler, aerodynamic body kit, upgraded wheels and Limit Slip Differential on pre-95 model etc.
For example, the BMW 750iL is a fuel-injected 7 Series with a long wheelbase and 5.4 litres of displacement. This badge was used for successive generations, E65 and F01, except the "i" and "L" switched places, so it read "Li" instead of "iL".
When 'L' supersedes the series number (e.g. L6, L7, etc.) it identifies the vehicle as a special luxury variant, having extended leather and special interior appointments. The L7 is based on the E23 and E38, and the L6 is based on the E24.
When 'X' is capitalised and supersedes the series number (e.g. X3, X5, etc.) it identifies the vehicle as one of BMW's Sports Activity Vehicles (SAV), their brand of crossovers, with BMW's xDrive. The second number in the 'X' series denotes the platform that it is based upon, for instance the X5 is derived from the 5 Series. Unlike BMW cars, the SAV's main badge does not denote engine size; the engine is instead indicated on side badges.
The 'Z' identifies the vehicle as a two-seat roadster (e.g. Z1, Z3, Z4, etc.). 'M' variants of 'Z' models have the 'M' as a suffix or prefix, depending on country of sale (e.g. 'Z4 M' is 'M Roadster' in Canada).
Previous X & Z vehicles had 'i' or 'si' following the engine displacement number (denoted in litres). BMW is now globally standardising this nomenclature on X & Z vehicles by using 'sDrive' or 'xDrive' (simply meaning rear or all-wheel drive, respectively) followed by two numbers which vaguely represent the vehicle's engine (e.g. Z4 sDrive35i is a rear-wheel-drive Z4 roadster with a 3.0 L twin-turbo fuel-injected engine).
BMW last used the 's' for the E36 328is, which ceased production in 1999. However, the 's' nomenclature was brought back on the 2011 model year BMW 335is and BMW Z4 sDrive35is. The 335is is a sport-tuned trim with more performance and an optional dual clutch transmission that slots between the regular 335i and top-of-the-line M3.
The 'M' – for Motorsport – identifies the vehicle as a high-performance model of a particular series (e.g. M3, M5, M6, etc.). For example, the M6 is the highest performing vehicle in the 6 Series lineup. Although 'M' cars should be separated into their respective series platforms, it is very common to see 'M' cars grouped together as its own lineup on the official BMW website.
There are exceptions to the numbering nomenclature.
The M version of the BMW 1 Series was named the BMW 1 Series M Coupe rather than the traditional style "M1" due to the possible confusion with BMW's former BMW M1 homologation sports car.
The M versions of the Sports Activity Vehicles, such as the X5 M, could not follow the regular naming convention since MX5 was used for Mazda's MX-5 Miata.
For instance in the 2008 model year, the BMW 125i/128i, 328i, and 528i all had 3.0 naturally aspirated engines (N52), not a 2,500 cc or 2,800 cc engine as the series designation number would lead one to believe. The '28' is to denote a detuned engine in the 2008 cars, compared to the 2006 model year '30' vehicles (330i and 530i) whose 3.0 naturally aspirated engines are from the same N52 family but had more output.
The 2008 BMW 335i and 535i also have 3.0-litre engine; however the engines are twin-turbocharged (N54) which is not identified by the nomenclature. Nonetheless the '35' indicates a more powerful engine than previous '30' models that have the naturally aspirated N52 engine. The 2011 BMW 740i and 335is shares the same twin-turbo 3.0 engine from the N54 family but tuned to higher outputs, although the badging is not consistent ('40' and 's'). The 2013 BMW 640i Gran Coupe's twin-scroll single turbo 3.0L inline-6 engine makes similar output to the older twin turbo inline-6 engines.
The E36 and E46 323i and E39 523i had 2.5-litre engines. The E36 318is made after 1996 has a 1.9 L engine (M44) as opposed to the 1.8 L (M42) used in the 1992 to 1995 models. The E36 316i "Contour" manufactured between 1999 and 2000 could be fitted with the 1.9 L M43B19 (M43). The E39 540i had a 4.4 L M62 engine, instead of a 4.0 L as the designation would suggest.
The badging for recent V8 engines (N62 and N63) also does not indicate displacement, as the 2006 750i and 2009 750i have 4800 cc (naturally aspirated) and 4400 cc (twin-turbocharged) engines, respectively.
In BMW CSL models (for example BMW M3 CSL), the letter L stands for Leichtbau (German for lightweight) instead of Lang (German for long wheelbase).
In June 2011, BMW and Sixt launched Drivenow, a joint-venture that provides carsharing services in several cities in Europe and North America. As of December 2012, DriveNow operates over 1,000 vehicles, which serve five cities worldwide and over 60,000 customers.
BMW has expanded its DriveNow car-sharing service in Seattle, rebranded as ReachNow.
Light and Charge
BMW has developed street lights equipped with sockets to charge electric cars, called Light and Charge.
From the summer of 2001 until October 2005, BMW hosted The Hire, showcasing sporty models being driven to extremes. These videos are still popular within the enthusiast community and proved to be a ground-breaking online advertising campaign.
Annually since 1999, BMW enthusiasts have met in Santa Barbara, CA to attend Bimmerfest. One of the largest brand-specific gatherings in the United States, over 3,000 people attended in 2006, and over 1,000 BMW cars were present. In 2007, the event was held on 5 May.
The initials BMW are pronounced [ˈbeː ˈɛm ˈveː] in German. The model series are referred to as "Einser" ("One-er" for 1 series), "Dreier" ("Three-er" for 3 series), "Fünfer" ("Five-er" for the 5 series), "Sechser" ("Six-er" for the 6 series), "Siebener" ("Seven-er" for the 7 series). These are not actually slang, but are the normal way that such letters and numbers are pronounced in German.
The English slang terms Beemer, Bimmer and Bee-em are variously used for BMWs of all kinds, cars and motorcycles.
In the US, specialists have been at pains to prescribe that a distinction must be made between using Beemer exclusively to describe BMW motorcycles, and using Bimmer only to refer to BMW cars, in the manner of a "true aficionado" and avoid appearing to be "uninitiated." The Canadian Globe and Mail prefers Bimmer and calls Beemer a "yuppie abomination," while the Tacoma News Tribune says it is a distinction made by "auto snobs." Using the wrong slang risks offending BMW enthusiasts. An editor of Business Week was satisfied in 2003 that the question was resolved in favor of Bimmer by noting that a Google search yielded 10 times as many hits compared to Beemer.
Manufacturers employ designers for their cars, but BMW has made efforts to gain recognition for exceptional contributions to and support of the arts, including art beyond motor vehicle design. These efforts typically overlap or complement BMW's marketing and branding campaigns.BMW Headquarters designed in 1972 by Karl Schwanzer has become a European icon, and artist Gerhard Richter created his Red, Yellow, Blue series of paintings for the building's lobby. In 1975, Alexander Calder was commissioned to paint the 3.0CSL driven by Hervé Poulain at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. This led to more BMW Art Cars, painted by artists including David Hockney, Jenny Holzer, Roy Lichtenstein, and others. The cars, currently numbering 17, have been shown at the Louvre, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, and, in 2009, at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and New York's Grand Central Terminal. BMW was the principal sponsor of the 1998 The Art of the Motorcycle exhibition at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and other Guggenheim museums, though the financial relationship between BMW and the Guggenheim was criticised in many quarters.
In 2012, BMW brought out the BMW Art Guide by Independent Collectors, which had, amongst others, the Dikeou Collection. It is the first global guide to private and publicly accessible collections of contemporary art worldwide.
The 2006 "BMW Performance Series" was a marketing event geared to attract black car buyers, and included the "BMW Pop-Jazz Live Series," a tour headlined by jazz musician Mike Phillips, and the "BMW Blackfilms.com Film Series" highlighting black filmmakers.
BMW has garnered a reputation over the years for its April Fools pranks, which are printed in the British press every year. In 2010, they ran an advertisement in The Guardian announcing that customers would be able to order BMWs with different coloured badges to show their affiliation with the political party they supported.
On 9 October 2014, BMW's new South American automobile plant in Araquari, Santa Catarina produced its first car. BMW intend to increase its production capacity to over 30,000 vehicles a year. The new site is intended to create around 1,300 new jobs, of which 500 have already been filled.
In October 2008, BMW Group Canada was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers by Mediacorp Canada Inc., which was announced by the Toronto Star newspaper.
Signing a deal in 2003 for the production of sedans in China, May 2004 saw the opening of a factory in the North-eastern city of Shenyang where Brilliance Auto produces BMW-branded automobiles in a joint venture with the German company.
Bavarian Auto Group is a multinational group of companies established in March 2003 when it was appointed as the sole importer of BMW and Mini in Egypt, with monopoly rights for import, assembly, distribution, sales and after-sales support of BMW products in Egypt. Since that date, BAG invested a total amount of US$100 million distributed on seven companies and 11 premises in addition to three stores.
BMW India was established in 2006 as a sales subsidiary in Gurgaon (National Capital Region). A state-of-the-art assembly plant for BMW 3 and 5 Series started operation in early 2007 in Chennai. Construction of the plant started in January 2006 with an initial investment of more than one billion Indian Rupees. The plant started operation in the first quarter of 2007 and produces the different variants of BMW 3 Series, BMW GT, BMW 5 Series, BMW 7 Series, BMW X1, BMW X3, BMW X5, Mini Cooper S, Mini Cooper D and Mini Countryman. Further more, it has expanded its model range to include the BMW Z4, BMW X6, BMW M Cars, and BMW i8. There are a total of 31 variants of BMW cars on offer in the Indian market today.
The vast majority of BMW automobiles in Japan are imported and sold by BMW Japan Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of BMW AG.
In July 2014, BMW announced it was establishing a plant in Mexico, in the city and state of San Luis Potosi involving an investment of $1 billion. The plant will employ 1,500 people, and produce 150,000 cars annually, commencing in 2019.
BMWs have been assembled in South Africa since 1968, when Praetor Monteerders' plant was opened in Rosslyn, near Pretoria. BMW initially bought shares in the company, before fully acquiring it in 1975; in so doing, the company became BMW South Africa, the first wholly owned subsidiary of BMW to be established outside Germany. Three unique models that BMW Motorsport created for the South African market were the E23 M745i (1983), which used the M88 engine from the BMW M1, the BMW 333i (1986), which added a six-cylinder 3.2-litre M30 engine to the E30, and the E30 BMW 325is (1989) which was powered by an Alpina-derived 2.7-litre engine.
Unlike United States manufacturers, such as Ford and GM, which divested from the country in the 1980s, BMW retained full ownership of its operations in South Africa. Following the end of apartheid in 1994, and the lowering of import tariffs, BMW South Africa ended local production of the 5-Series and 7-Series, in order to concentrate on production of the 3-Series for the export market. South African–built BMWs are now exported to right hand drive markets including Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong, as well as Sub-Saharan Africa. Since 1997, BMW South Africa has produced vehicles in left-hand drive for export to Taiwan, the United States and Iran, as well as South America.
BMWs with a VIN starting with "NC0" are manufactured in South Africa.
The BMW Manufacturing Company opened in 1994, in South Carolina, and has been manufacturing all Z4 and X5 models, and more recently the X6 and X3, including those for export to Europe, on the same assembly line in Greer between Greenville and Spartanburg. In an average work day the company builds 600 vehicles: 500 X5s and 100 Z4s. The engines for these vehicles are built in Munich, Germany. BMWs with a VIN starting with "4US and 5US" are manufactured in Greer.
In 2010 BMW announced that it would spend $750 million to expand operations at the Greer plant. This expansion will allow production of 240,000 vehicles a year and will make the plant the largest car factory in the United States by number of employees. BMW's largest single market is the United States, where 339 dealerships sold 346,023 cars in 2015.
As of 2015[update], the Greer facility produces all BMW X3, X4, X5, X5 M, X6 and X6 M models.
BMW began using the slogan 'The Ultimate Driving Machine' in the 1970s. In 2010, this long-lived campaign was mostly supplanted by 'Joy', a campaign intended to make the brand more "approachable" and to better appeal to women, but by 2012 they had returned to "The Ultimate Driving Machine", which has a strong public association with BMW.
In 2013, BMW replaced the 'double-gong' sound used in TV and Radio advertising campaigns since 1998. The new sound, developed to represent the future identity of BMW, was described as "introduced by a rising, resonant sound and underscored by two distinctive bass tones that form the sound logo's melodic and rhythmic basis." The new sound was first used in BMW 4 Series Concept Coupe TV commercial. The sound was produced by Thomas Kisser of HASTINGS media music.
The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel evolved from the circular Rapp Motorenwerke company logo, from which the BMW company grew, combined with the blue and white colors of the flag of Bavaria. The logo has been portrayed as the movement of an aircraft propeller with the white blades cutting through a blue sky—first used in a BMW advertisement in 1929, twelve years after the roundel was created—but this is not the origin of the logo itself. The BMW logo still used today was created in early 1920.
Theft using OBD, 2012
In 2012, BMW vehicles were stolen by programming a blank key fob to start the car through the on-board diagnostics (OBD) connection. The primary causes of this vulnerability lie in the lack of appropriate authentication and authorization in the OBD specifications, which rely largely on security through obscurity. BMW offered all owners a free fix through a software update, and all newer vehicles have upgraded software that fixed this vulnerability.
Dieter Spaar was asked by ADAC to analyze ConnectedDrive and its hardware called Combox. He uncovered the following problems which allowed him e.g. to remotely open the car:
- BMW uses the same symmetric keys in all cars.
- some services do not encrypt transported data while connecting to the BMW backend.
- the integrity of the ConnectedDrive configuration is not protected.
- the Combox discloses the vehicle identification number via NGTP (next generation telematics pattern) error messages.
- data sent via SMS in NGTP format are encrypted via the nowadays unsecure DES.
- the Combox does not protect against replay attacks.
BMW was notified in advance of the publication to provide fixes. The transport is now encrypted and BMW's server certificate is verified. The updates were delivered via ConnectedDrive config change. All BMW, Mini and Rolls Royce cars produced between March 2010 and 8 December 2014 are vulnerable. Cars without battery or parked in places without mobile connection still may be vulnerable, an update can be initiated manually.
(German: Neue Klasse)